Chapter 21 Blood Vessels

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1

Arteries are sometimes called the _______ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have a strong-resilient tissue structure.

resistance

2

________ have the thickest tunica media.

Large arteries

3

The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the _________, and in large arteries and veins contains the _____________.

tunica exerna; vasa vasorum

4

Most blood is in the ___________.

veins

5

Vasomotion is associated with the presence of ___________.

smooth muscle in the tunica media

6

Varicose veins are caused by __________.

failure of the venous valves

7

What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?

80 mm Hg

8

The velocity of blood flow decreases when ______________.

viscosity increases.

9

The medullary ischemic reflex results in ________________.

increased circulation to the brain.

10

___________ has the most important effect on blood velocity.

Vessel radius

11

Reactive hyperemia is a result of ____________ to increase perfusion in a tissue.

local control

12

Blood pressure does not increase by ________.

atrial natriuretic peptide.

13

The vasomotor center of the __________ controls blood vessels throughout the body.

medulla oblongata

14

Hypertension is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than __________.

140/90

15

_____________ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _________________ also increases heart rate.

epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine

16

____________ is not a mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall.

Secretion

17

The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is ____________________.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

18

___________________ by the capillaries at their venous end.

Waste products are taken up

19

The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is _____________________.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

20

________________ do not lead to edema.

Hyperproteinemia

21

________________ would not increase capillary filtration.

Dehydration

22

A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mm Hg can cause _____________, whereas a MAP above 160 mm Hg can cause _________.

syncope; cerebral edema

23

_______________ does not contribute to venous return.

Widespread vasodilation

24

______________ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration.

Hypovolemic

25

__________ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability.

Septic

26

A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes __________ and a(n) ___________ in arterial blood pressure.

vasoconstriction; decrease

27

Myocardial infarction can lead to _________ shick.

cardiogenic

28

The most important force in venous flow is _______________.

the pressure generated by the heart

29

Blood flow to the ____________ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg.

hypothalamus

30

Pulmonary arteries have ________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.

considerably lower

31

How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?

0

32

The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the _______________.

bronchial arteries

33

There are no ______________ in humans.

right and left brachiocephalic arteries

34

The _______________ supplies 80% of the cerebrum.

internal carotid artery

35

The cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis) is ______________.

an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland

36

From the superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are:

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

37

The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of ______________.

the azygos system

38

The _________ are not a contributor of the inferior vena cava.

vertebral veins

39

The _________________ is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery.

great saphenous vein

40

What are the 3 layers of the blood vessel:

tunica interna, tunica median tunica externa

41

The innermost layer, adjacent to lumen

tunica interna

42

The middle layer, smooth muscle and elastic fibers

tunica media

43

The outermost layer, adjacent to surrounding tissue

tunica externa

44

thick-walled, muscular, and elastic, conduct blood at high pressure, and have a pulse

arteries

45

thin-walled, conduct at low pressure, contain many valves to prevent backflow, have no pulse

veins

46

_____________ carry blood away from the heart to the tissues

Arteries

47

Elastic, which allows them to absorb the pressure created by ventricles of the heart as they pump blood into the arteries.

the walls of arteries

48

Arteries can regulate their diameter because of the _______________ in the tunica media.

smooth muscle

49

Name the types of arteries

elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles

50

Features of the elastic arteries (conducting arteries) are

large diameter, more elastic fibers, less smooth muscle, function as pressure reserviors

51

Features of the muscular arteries (distributing arteries) are

medium diameter, more smooth muscle, fewer elastic fibers, distribute blood to various parts of the body

52

Features of the arterioles are

abundant microscopic, vessels that regulate the flow of blood into the capillary networks of the body's tissues.

53

Arterioles play a key role in _______________ blood flow from arteries into capillaries by regulating _________.

regulating; resistance

54

The transfer of substances (by-products and waste) between interstitial fluid surrounding each cell and the blood flowing past the cells in the capillaries

capillary exchange

55

Microscopic vessels that usually connect arterioles and venules

capillaries

56

Composed of a single layer of cells and a basement membrane

capillary walls

57

The exchange of nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue cells happen because the

capillary walls are so thin

58

___________ branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissues and are found near almost every cell in the body

capillaries

59

Name the types of capillaries

continuous, fenestrated, sinusoids

60

___________ are small vessels that are formed by the union of several capillaries

venules

61

____________ drain blood from the _____________ in the veins

Venules; capillaries

62

An ___________ is the union of the branches of 2 or more arteries supplying the same region of the body

anastomoses

63

Anastomes union provides an _______________ for blood flow

alternate route

64

Arteries that do not form anastomosis are known as

end arteries

65

When an end artery is blocked, blood cannot get to that particular region of the body. What can occur?

necrosis

66

Necrosis is _________ of a segment that blood doesn't reach

death

67

Veins are formed from union of several _________.

venules

68

Compared to arteries, veins have thinner tunica interna and media and ____________ tunica externa.

thicker

69

Veins have less ___________ tissue and less ________ muscle than arteries

elastic; smooth

70

Veins contain __________

valves

71

At rest, the largest portion of the blood is in ___________________ and ________________, which are considered "blood reservoirs".

systemic veins; venules

72

Blood flow during exercise _______________ perfusion of the lungs, myocardium, and skeletal muscles, and _____________ perfusion of the kidneys and digestive tract.

increases; decreases

73

During capillary exchange, substance cross capillary walls by

diffusion, transcytosis, and bulk flow

74

The most important mechanism of the capillary exchange is

diffusion

75

4 bulk flow factors are

blood hydro-static pressure, blood colloid osmotic pressure, interstitial fluid osmotic pressure and interstitial fluid hydro-static pressure

76

The difference between net hydrostatic pressure and net osmotic pressure is

net filtration pressure

77

An abnormal buildup of fluid in the capillary results in swelling known as

edema

78

Substances such as oxygen, cardon dioxide, glucose, amino acids, and some hormones cross capillary walls via

simple diffusion

79

Large, lipid-insoluble molecules (like insulin) cross capillary walls in vesicles via

transcytosis

80

Bulk flow is a passive process in which large numbers of _______, _______, or ________ in a fluid move together in the same direction

ions, molecules or particles

81

Bulk flow occurs from an area of __________ pressure to an area of _______ pressure, and it continues as long as a pressure difference exists.

higher; lower

82

Filtration is a _________________ movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid.

pressure-driven

83

_____________ is pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from the interstitial fluid into blood capillaries.

Reabsorption

84

Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) and blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) promote

reabsorption

85

Under normal conditions, the volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed is almost as large as the volume filtered is called

Starling's Law of the capillaries

86

___________ is the volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given time period (in mL/min)

Blood flow

87

Total blood flow is

cardiac output (CO)

88

Cardiac output equation

heart rate (hr) x stroke rate (sv)

89

Contraction of the ventricles generates

blood pressure (BP)

90

___________________ is the opposition to blood flow due to friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels

Vascular resistance (R)

91

________ the volume of blood flowing back to the heart through the systemic veins

Venous Return (VR)

92

___________ is an inadequate CO (cardiac output) that results in failure of the CV system to meet the metabolic demands of body cells

Shock

93

Name the types of shock

hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vascular, obstructive

94

Shock resulting from blood or fluid loss

hypovolemic shock

95

Shock caused by inadequate function of the heart, or pump failure

cardiogenic shock

96

Shock from extreme vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance

Vascular shock

97

Shock that occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues

obstructive shock

98

Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; secretion of anti-diuretic hormone; activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS; release of local vasodiliators

Homeostasis response to shock

99

Blood vessels develop from isolated masses of ____________ in the mesoderm called _________________

mesenchyme; blood islands

100

Normal blood pressure

less than 120/80 mm Hg

101

Pre hypertension blood pressure

120-139/80-89 mm Hg

102

Stage 1 hypertension

140-159/90-99 mm Hg

103

Stage 2 hypertension

greater than 160/100 mm Hg