Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3

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1
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The illustration of simple cuboidal epithelium is ________.

A) Label A

B) Label B

C) Label C

D) Label D

E) Label E

B

2
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The illustration of skeletal muscle tissue is ________.

A) Label A

B) Label B

C) Label C

D) Label D

E) Label E

E

3
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The illustration of stratified squamous epithelium is ________.

A) Label A

B) Label B

C) Label C

D) Label D

E) Label E

D

4
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The illustration of simple squamous epithelium is ________.

A) Label A

B) Label B

C) Label C

D) Label D

E) Label E

A

5
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The illustration of cardiac muscle tissue is ________.

A) Label A

B) Label B

C) Label C

D) Label D

E) Label E

C

6

Cellular material located outside the nucleus yet inside the plasma membrane is the ________.

A) nucleolus

B) cytoplasm

C) interstitial fluid

D) extracellular fluid

B

7

The specialized cellular compartments within the cytosol of the cell are collectively called ________. A) organelles

B) cilia

C) flagella

D) microvilli

A

8

________, a type of cell junction, anchor adjacent cells together and prevent cells from being pulled apart.

A) Tight junctions

B) Gap junctions

C) Desmosomes

D) Cytoplasm

C

9

The phospholipid tails are ________, which make the plasma membrane impermeable to water.

A) water-loving

B) hydrophilic

C) polar

D) hydrophobic

D

10

The organelle responsible for making the majority of ATP in a cell is the ________.

A) Golgi apparatus

B) mitochondrion

C) rough endoplasmic reticulum

D) lysosome

B

11

The membrane connections that prevent the leaking of fluid between cells are called ________.

A) gap junctions

B) tight junctions

C) desmosomes

D) microvilli

B

12

The ________ is a network of proteins that forms an internal framework for the cell.

A) mitochondrion

B) cytoskeleton

C) rough endoplasmic reticulum

D) Golgi apparatus

B

13

The passive process that involves the movement of water through aquaporins is ________.

A) facilitated diffusion

B) endocytosis

C) solute pumping

D) osmosis

D

14

The nucleoplasm and cytosol make up the ________ fluid.

A) interstitial

B) intracellular

C) extracellular

D) nuclear

B

15

The movement of substances through the cell membrane against their concentration gradient is a type of ________ process.

A) active

B) passive

C) diffusion

D) filtration

A

16

The nucleotides of DNA join in a complementary way in which adenine pairs with ________ while cytosine pairs with ________.

A) adenine; cytosine

B) uracil; guanine

C) thymine; guanine

D) guanine; thymine

C

17

In cell division, the term that refers to division of the cytoplasm is ________.

A) mitosis

B) interphase

C) cytokinesis

D) meiosis

C

18

The period of the cell cycle when the cell grows and performs its metabolic activities is ________.

A) anaphase

B) interphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

B

19

The purpose of ________ is to produce two genetically identical cells.

A) interphase

B) cell division

C) DNA replication

D) protein synthesis

B

20

The DNA segment that carries information for building one protein or polypeptide chain is called a(n) ________.

A) codon

B) gene

C) anticodon

D) amino acid

B

21

The two steps of protein synthesis, in the correct order, are ________ and ________.

A) transcription; translation

B) replication; mitosis

C) mitosis; cytokinesis

D) transcription; replication

A

22

Groups of cells that are similar in both structure and function are known as ________.

A) organs

B) organ systems

C) tissues

D) atoms

C

23

Epithelial tissues have one free surface or edge known as the ________ surface.

A) basement

B) apical

C) matrix

D) attached

B

24

The type of tissue consisting of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix is ________ tissue.

A) epithelial

B) connective

C) muscle

D) nervous

B

25

________ glands possess ducts that transport secretions onto epithelial surfaces.

A) Endocrine

B) Adrenal

C) Thyroid

D) Exocrine

D

26

The type of epithelial tissue found lining organs of the digestive system such as the small intestines is ________.

A) simple columnar

B) simple cuboidal

C) pseudostratified columnar

D) simple squamous

A

27

The cell type found in nervous tissue is the ________.

A) fibroblast

B) osteocyte

C) neuron

D) chondrocyte

C

28

________ tissue is commonly called fat.

A) Adipose

B) Bone

C) Reticular

D) Dense fibrous

A

29

________ muscle tissue has no visible striations and has spindle-shaped cells.

A) Smooth

B) Cardiac

C) Skeletal

D) Dense regular

A

30

Many layers of flattened cells should be termed ________ epithelial tissue.

A) stratified columnar

B) stratified squamous

C) pseudostratified columnar

D) simple squamous

B

31
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The cell shown in Figure 3.2 has been placed into a(n) ________ solution.

A) hypertonic

B) hypotonic

C) isotonic

D) equilibrium

B

32

The structural and functional unit of all living things is the ________.

A) nucleus

B) element

C) cytoplasm

D) cell

E) organelle

D

33

Which of the following statements is NOT part of the cell theory?

A) The biochemical activities of cells depends on the number of their subcellular structures.

B) The human body is composed of 50 to 100 trillion cells.

C) Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.

D) The activity of an organism depends on its collective cellular activities.

E) The continuity of life has a cellular basis.

B

34

What is the arrangement of the phospholipids as a substance passes through the plasma membrane? A) phospholipid head, phospholipid tails, phospholipid head, phospholipid tails

B) phospholipid head, phospholipid head, phospholipid tails, phospholipid tails

C) phospholipid head, phospholipid tails, phospholipid tails, phospholipid head

D) phospholipid tail, phospholipid head, phospholipid tail

E) phospholipid tails, phospholipid head, phospholipid head, phospholipid tails

C

35

Which of the following is NOT a structural component of the nucleus?

A) nuclear envelope

B) nucleolus

C) Golgi apparatus

D) chromatin

E) nuclear pores

C

36

Nutrients and ions can pass directly from cell to cell through special membrane junctions known as ________.

A) desmosomes

B) gap junctions

C) inclusions

D) microvilli

E) tight junctions

B

37

The three major components of the cytoplasm are the ________.

A) cytosol, organelles, and inclusions

B) cytosol, inclusions, and nucleoli

C) cytosol, organelles, and nucleoli

D) organelles, inclusions, and nucleoli

E) organelles, inclusions, and ribosomes

A

38

Which of the following is NOT considered a cytoplasmic organelle?

A) mitochondrion

B) Golgi apparatus

C) flagellum

D) rough endoplasmic reticulum

E) peroxisome

C

39

The preparation of secretory vesicles for export from the cell is the responsibility of the ________.

A) mitochondrion

B) Golgi apparatus

C) cytoskeleton

D) peroxisome

E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum

B

40

The organelle that contains enzymes produced by ribosomes and packaged by the Golgi apparatus is the ________.

A) Golgi apparatus

B) lysosome

C) peroxisome

D) ribosome

E) rough endoplasmic reticulum

B

41

The movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area is called ________.

A) active transport

B) bulk transport

C) osmosis

D) diffusion

E) filtration

E

42

Passive processes that move substances across membranes ________.

A) utilize ATP

B) employ protein pumps

C) transport substances against their concentration gradients

D) require no ATP

E) include exocytosis and endocytosis

D

43

Osmosis transports water across membranes using ________.

A) ATP

B) solute pumping

C) aquaporins

D) sodium-potassium pump

E) vesicles

C

44

What assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion?

A) ATP

B) protein carrier or channel

C) lysosomes

D) aquaporins

E) solute pumps

B

45

What is required for diffusion to occur?

A) protein carrier or channel

B) concentration gradient

C) ATP

D) solute pump

E) ribosomes

B

46

Two types of endocytosis are ________.

A) cellular secretion and solute pumping

B) solute pumping and active transport

C) active transport and phagocytosis

D) phagocytosis and pinocytosis

E) pinocytosis and passive transport

D

47

Which of the following substances must travel across a membrane via facilitated diffusion?

A) carbon dioxide

B) water

C) oxygen

D) fat-soluble vitamins

E) glucose

E

48

Which of the following processes require the use of protein carrier molecules?

A) facilitated diffusion and solute pumping

B) facilitated diffusion and vesicular transport

C) vesicular transport and osmosis

D) osmosis and filtration

E) filtration and exocytosis

A

49

A cell is isotonic to its 4% dextrose solution. When moved to a 6% dextrose solution, that cell will ________.

A) shrink

B) plump

C) bloat

D) rupture

E) lyse

A

50

The portion of the cell's life cycle that does NOT involve cell division is known as ________.

A) interphase

B) mitosis

C) metaphase

D) prophase

E) cytokinesis

A

51

The molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome for incorporation into a protein is ________.

A) ATP

B) messenger RNA (mRNA)

C) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

D) DNA

E) transfer RNA (tRNA)

E

52

The correct order of phases of the mitosis is ________.

A) prophase, interphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

B) prophase, anaphase, telophase, metaphase

C) metaphase, anaphase, prophase, telophase

D) telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase

E) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

E

53

The process of transcription ________.

A) produces ATP from glucose and oxygen

B) transfers information from DNA into mRNA

C) occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell

D) creates proteins from mRNA

E) translates nucleic acids into amino acids

B

54

Sequences of three bases found in messenger RNA (mRNA) are called ________.

A) anticodons

B) deoxyribose sugars

C) codons

D) ribosomes

E) amino acids

C

55

The two major phases of protein synthesis are ________.

A) transcription and replication

B) mitosis and interphase

C) replication and translation

D) transcription and translation

E) synthesis and cytokinesis

D

56

Which of the following represents a segment of RNA?

A) AUGUCA

B) ATGCTA

C) TGCGTT

D) CTGTGG

E) GTCATA

A

57

DNA replication takes place during ________.

A) interphase

B) prophase

C) metaphase

D) anaphase

E) telophase

A

58

During transcription, which base pairs with adenine of DNA in the newly formed molecule of RNA?

A) thymine

B) adenine

C) uracil

D) cytosine

E) guanine

C

59

If the sequence of nitrogenous bases in one strand of DNA is GTA-GCA, the sequence of bases on its complementary DNA strand would be ________.

A) CAU-CGU

B) CAT-CGT

C) GAU-GCU

D) GAT-GCT

E) ACG-ATT

B

60

A tissue constructed of a single layer of flattened cells is known as ________.

A) simple squamous epithelium

B) simple columnar epithelium

C) simple cuboidal epithelium

D) stratified squamous epithelium

E) transitional epithelium

A

61

Which type of tissue conducts electrochemical impulses?

A) epithelial tissue

B) muscle tissue

C) nervous tissue

D) connective tissue

E) dense tissue

C

62

Which of the following is NOT classified as a connective tissue?

A) bone

B) cartilage

C) blood

D) skeletal muscle

E) adipose

D

63

Which type of tissue is situated in the lining of the urinary bladder and urethra where stretching occurs?

A) simple cuboidal epithelium

B) stratified squamous epithelium

C) simple squamous epithelium

D) pseudostratified columnar epithelium

E) transitional epithelium

E

64

The tissue that is usually well vascularized and has an extensive extracellular matrix is called ________. A) epithelial tissue

B) connective tissue

C) nervous tissue

D) muscle tissue

E) brain tissue

B

65

Which of the following epithelial tissues is composed of many layers of cells?

A) pseudostratified columnar epithelium

B) simple squamous epithelium

C) simple columnar epithelium

D) simple cuboidal epithelium

E) stratified squamous epithelium

E

66

Bone is best described as ________.

A) dense connective tissue

B) epithelial tissue

C) adipose tissue

D) areolar tissue

E) osseous tissue

E

67

Identify the type of connective tissue that is found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow.

A) adipose tissue

B) dense connective tissue

C) areolar tissue

D) reticular connective tissue

E) osseous tissue

D

68

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.

A) exocrine

B) endocrine

C) sebaceous

D) ceruminous

E) sudoriferous

B

69

Which of these characteristics best describes cardiac muscle tissue?

A) movement is involuntary and cells possess striations

B) attached to the skeleton

C) movement is voluntary and cells possess striations

D) single nucleus and spindle-shaped cells

E) multinucleate and long, cylindrical cells

A

70

The type of muscle found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, and in the walls of blood vessels is ________.

A) cardiac muscle

B) skeletal muscle

C) smooth muscle

D) both smooth muscle and skeletal muscle

E) both cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle

C

71

The presence of chondrocytes indicates that a tissue is ________.

A) adipose

B) cartilage

C) bone

D) blood

E) areolar

B

72

Damaged tissues that are repaired by the same kind of cells experience a replacement process known as ________.

A) inflammation

B) regeneration

C) fibrosis

D) scarring

E) clotting

B

73

Intercalated discs found in cardiac muscle tissue are ________.

A) tight junctions

B) phagocytes

C) gap junctions

D) signet ring cells

E) desmosomes

C

74

Jacinda tore her Achilles (calcaneal) tendon during a recent track meet. She has injured ________.

A) muscle tissue

B) loose connective tissue

C) epithelial tissue

D) dense connective tissue

E) nervous tissue

D

75

Looking into a microscope, you notice cells swimming, propelled by a long tail. What cell structure must these cells have in order to be mobile?

A) ribosomes

B) smooth ER

C) flagella

D) peroxisomes

E) cytoplasm

C

76

Which of the following tissues is constructed of many collagen fibers?

A) blood

B) scar tissue

C) transitional epithelium

D) pseudostratified columnar epithelium

E) simple cuboidal epithelium

B

77

Which type of connective tissue is avascular?

A) adipose

B) bone

C) cartilage

D) areolar

E) reticular

C

78

A cancer drug interferes with the development of mitotic spindle fibers during cell division. Which phase is directly affected?

A) prophase

B) telophase

C) anaphase

D) metaphase

E) interphase

A

79

Neurons and neuroglia are components of ________. A) epithelial tissue

B) connective tissue

C) nervous tissue

D) muscle tissue

E) granulation tissue

C

80

Which tissue performs peristalsis to move substances, such as food, through the hollow organs of the body? A) skeletal muscle tissue

B) transitional epithelium

C) cardiac muscle tissue

D) nervous tissue

E) smooth muscle tissue

E

81
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The tissue shown in Figure 3.3 most likely ________. A) contracts to produce movement

B) transmits electrochemical impulses

C) covers and lines body surfaces

D) stores fat

E) contains a matrix

C

82

T/F: Chromatin and chromosomes are both composed of DNA.

True

83

T/F: Phospholipid tails are hydrophilic and are attracted to water.

False

84

T/F: Protein synthesis occurs on lysosomes in the cell.

False

85

T/F: The process of facilitated diffusion requires energy

False

86

T/F: Osmosis is the process of water moving down the concentration gradient

True

87

T/F: Peroxisomes detoxify harmful or poisonous substances, such as alcohol.

True

88

T/F: Sperm are the only cells in the human body to possess cilia.

False

89

T/F: Mitotic spindles guide the separation of chromosomes during mitosis

True

90

T/F: Anaphase is the stage of cell division when the cleavage furrow first appears.

True

91

T/F: Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm, whereas mitosis is the division of the nucleus.

True

92

T/F: Translation is the stage of protein synthesis during which a complementary mRNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA template.

False

93

T/F: Stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelial cells.

False

94

T/F: Epithelial tissues are often well vascularized and contain an extracellular matrix.

False

95

T/F: The matrix of hyaline cartilage consists of abundant collagen fibers hidden in a rubbery matrix

True

96

T/F: Muscle tissue is located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

False

97

Cytokinesis is completed

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

D

98

Centrioles separate and move toward opposite sides of the cell

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

A

99

Chromosomes cluster and align at the center of the spindle

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

C

100

Nucleoli appear in each daughter cell

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

D

101

Chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

B

102

Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

C

103

Spindle breaks down and disappears

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

D

104

Nuclear envelope and nucleoli break down and disappear

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

A

105

Cleavage furrow squeezes the cell into two parts

A) prophase

B) anaphase

C) metaphase

D) telophase

D

106

Type of active transport in which sodium and potassium are pumped across a membrane using ATP

A) Solute pumping

B) Osmosis

C) Endocytosis

D) Diffusion

A

107

Type of passive process in which water is moved through aquaporins

A) Solute pumping

B) Osmosis

C) Endocytosis

D) Diffusion

B

108

Type of passive process in which molecules move across the plasma membrane down a concentration gradient

A) Solute pumping

B) Osmosis

C) Endocytosis

D) Diffusion

D

109

Type of active process in which the cell engulfs extracellular substances by phagocytosis or pinocytosis

A) Solute pumping

B) Osmosis

C) Endocytosis

D) Diffusion

C

110

Type of tissue that has an apical surface and a basement membrane

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

D

111

Type of tissue that consists of living cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

A

112

Type of tissue that is specialized to contract and produce movement

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

C

113

Type of tissue that can be simple or stratified

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

D

114

Type of tissue that is found in the brain and spinal cord

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

B

115

Type of tissue that can be described as voluntary or involuntary

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

C

116

Type of tissue that contains collagen, elastic, or reticular fibers

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

A

117

Type of tissue that is common in glands and their ducts

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

D

118

Type of tissue that supports, protects, and binds tissues together

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

A

119

Type of tissue that can be classified as loose or dense

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

A

120

Type of tissue whose two functional characteristics are irritability and conductivity

A) connective tissue

B) nervous tissue

C) muscle tissue

D) epithelial tissue

B