Microbiology: MICRO BIOLOGY Flashcards


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Microbiology
Chapters 1, 2
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1

1) A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification?

bacterium
fungus
protozoan
parasitic worm

fungus

2

2) You have isolated microorganisms that are green, photosynthetic, have a cell wall, and do NOT possess a nucleus. These organisms are __________.

bacteria
archaea
fungi
algae

bacteria

3

3)Which of the following is NOT an example of a fungus?

algae
mushrooms
yeasts
molds

algae

4

4)Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________.

they usually contain bacteria and other microbes
they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
they were not studied by early microbiologists
they are microscopic as adults

they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens

5

5)Which of the following is a true statement concerning bacteria and archaea?

Bacteria are found only in extreme environments.
While some bacteria are pathogenic to humans, no archaea are known to cause human diseases.
Bacteria reproduce asexually, while archaea reproduce sexually.
Bacteria and archaea have identical types of cell walls.

While some bacteria are pathogenic to humans, no archaea are known to cause human diseases.

6

6)When the nucleus of an atom contains a constant number of protons but a variable number of neutrons, the atom is called a(n) __________.

isotope
valence
dalton
element

isotope

7

7) Which of the following refers to the use of bacteria or other microbes to detoxify pollutants?

biotechnology
biochemistry
bioremediation
recombinant DNA technology

bioremediation

8

8) Which field of microbiology involves the study of microorganisms in their natural habitats?

recombinant DNA technology
environmental microbiology
microbial genetics
molecular biology

environmental microbiology

9

9) Which of the following is an accurate description of viruses?

they are visible with a light microscope.
they are typically about the size of prokaryotic cells.
they are composed of protein only.
they are acellular obligatory parasites.
they are the smallest known cells.

they are acellular obligatory parasites.

10

10) Which of the following is an incorrect pairing?

fungi; cell walls
prokaryotes; no nuclei
algae; aquatic and marine habitats
viruses; acellular parasites
protozoa; multicellular

protozoa; multicellular

11

11) A tiny (less than 2 micrometers) new organism is discovered living in a boiling hot "mud pot" (a type of mud spring). It is most likely a member of the

fungi.
algae.
viruses.
protozoa.
archaea.

archaea.

12

12) Parasitic worms, even meters-long tapeworms, are studied in microbiology because

the Gram stain can be used to identify them.
they are parasites.
no one else wants to study them.
diagnosis usually involves microscopic examination of patient samples.
Leeuwenhoek first discovered them.

diagnosis usually involves microscopic examination of patient

13

13) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?

they frequently possess cilia or flagella.
they are eukaryotic organisms.
they are single-celled organisms.
most exhibit asexual reproduction.
they are all photosynthetic.

they are all photosynthetic.

14

14) The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.

bacteria
fungi
archaea
viruses
protozoa

protozoa

15

15) Microorganisms characterized by the absence of a nucleus are called

eukaryotes.
pathogens.
fungi.
viruses.
prokaryotes.

prokaryotes.

16

16) Identification of bacteria in the laboratory usually begins with the ________ for placement in one of two large groups of bacteria.

Gram stain
Petri stain
Koch's stain
Pasteur fermentation test
Ehrlich magic test

Gram stain

17

17) The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is

epidemiology.
bioremediation.
chemotherapy.
serology.
ecology.

bioremediation.

18

18) The control of infectious disease remains challenging a century after the understanding of infectious disease began. What contributes to the continuing challenge?

rapidly growing estimates of the diversity of microbes
emerging diseases
creating microbes using recombinant DNA technology
developing resistance to antimicrobial agents
both drug-resistant pathogens and emerging diseases

both drug-resistant pathogens and emerging diseases

19

19) Microbiologists study only single-celled organisms.
True
False

False

20

20) A microbe with a cell wall and no internal membrane enclosing the DNA is a prokaryote.
True
False

True

21

21) Which of the following is a particle found in the nucleus of an atom and that has no electrical charge?

element
electron
proton
isotope
neutron

neutron

22

22) A stable atom has ________ in its valence shell.

8 protons
4 electrons
2 neutrons
10 electrons
8 electrons

8 electrons

23

23)Which of the following is found only in eukaryotic cells?

Cytoplasm
Cytoplasmic membrane
Nuclear envelope
Ribosomes
DNA

Nuclear envelope

24

24)Which parts of the atoms interact in a chemical reaction?

ions
electrons
protons
isotopes
neutrons

electrons

25

25) The type(s) of bonds produced when atoms share electrons equally is/are

a polar covalent bond.
an ionic bond.
a hydrogen bond.
a nonpolar covalent bond.
both polar covalent and ionic bond

a nonpolar covalent bond.

26

26) The type(s) of bond produced when atoms with somewhat different electronegativities share electrons is/are

an ionic bond.
a polar covalent bond.
a nonpolar covalent bond.
a hydrogen bond.
both nonpolar covalent and ionic bonds.

a polar covalent bond.

27

27) Compounds that readily dissociate in water are
Compounds that readily dissociate in water are
ionic.
nonpolar.
polar.
either polar or ionic.
never polar or ionic.

either polar or ionic.

28

28) Which of the following is a property of water?

it is liquid in a very narrow temperature range.
it is a nonpolar molecule.
it is not a common reactant in metabolic reactions.
It is not a good solvent.
it has a high capacity for heat.

it has a high capacity for heat.

29

29) An acid dissociates in water to release
anions.

hydroxyl groups.
cations.
hydrogen ions.
both anions and hydrogen ions.

both anions and hydrogen ions.

30

30) The reverse of a dehydration synthesis reaction is a(n) ________ reaction.

hydrolysis
exchange
anabolic
endothermic
metabolic

hydrolysis

31

31) A hydroxyl ________ acts as a base.

salt
atom
anion
group
cation

anion

32

32) Nucleic acid polymers, proteins, and complex carbohydrates are all produced by

hydrogen bonding.
dehydration synthesis.
exchange reactions.
catabolic reactions.
hydrolytic reactions

dehydration synthesis.

33

33) Research suggests taking antacids may make people more susceptible to infection with Vibrio vulnificus by making the stomach environment more tolerable to the bacteria. Based on this information and the name "antacid," which of the following are antacids likely to be?

bases
buffers
non-polar compounds
acids
either base or buffer

either base or buffer

34

34) All of the following are components of an amino acid EXCEPT a(n)

amino group.
α-carbon.
pentose group.
carboxyl group.
R group.

pentose group.

35

35) The "backbone" of the DNA molecule is composed of

pentoses.
phosphates.
nitrogenous bases.
alternating phosphates and pentoses.
amino acids.

alternating phosphates and pentoses.

36

36) Proteins contain both acidic and basic R groups, and can therefore function as
catalysts.
energy storage macromolecules.
genetic material.
buffers.
structural macromolecules.

buffers.

37

37)Bacterial cell walls are composed of

polysaccharides.
carbohydrates and waxes.
peptides.
peptides and polysaccharides.
waxes.

peptides and polysaccharides.

38

38) A reaction requires water as a reactant and produces heat. What type of reaction is likely to be involved?

a synthesis reaction
an exchange reaction
a decomposition reaction
a hydrolysis reaction
The answer cannot be determined with the available information.

a decomposition reaction

39

39) What functional groups are present in ALL amino acids?

amino and sulfhydryl groups.
amino and carboxyl groups
carboxyl groups
amino groups
hydroxyl groups.

amino and carboxyl groups