MICROBIOLOGY CHAPTER 24

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Microbiology
Chapter 24
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1

The lower respiratory tract is protected by all of the following EXCEPT
A) competition with the normal flora of the lungs.
B) IgA antibodies.
C) mucous secretions.
D) the ciliary escalator.
E) alveolar macrophages.

A

2

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) pharyngitis — sore throat
B) laryngitis — voice loss
C) epiglottitis — sore throat
D) sinusitis — headache and nasal mucous
E) otitis media — earache

C

3

Members of the group A streptococci (GAS) cause all of the following EXCEPT
A) strep throat.
B) scarlet fever.
C) rheumatic fever.
D) pharyngitis.
E) epiglottitis.

E

4

Which of the following statements about mycoplasmal pneumonia is TRUE?
A) The causative agent is a virus.
B) The symptoms resemble pneumococcal pneumonia.
C) The causative agent cannot be cultured.
D) Treatment is tetracyclines.
E) Annual vaccination can prevent infection

D

5

Which of the following is NOT a typical symptom of influenza?
A) fever
B) chills
C) headache
D) diarrhea
E) muscle aches

D

6

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) Corynebacterium — gram-positive rod
B) Mycobacterium — acid-fast rod
C) Mycoplasma — gram-positive pleomorphic rod
D) Bordetella — gram-negative pleomorphic rod
E) Haemophilus — gram-negative rod

C

7

Which of the following microorganisms causes symptoms most like tuberculosis?
A) Histoplasma
B) Coccidioides
C) Legionella
D) Mycoplasma
E) Influenza virus

A

8

All of the following can lead to a positive tuberculin skin test EXCEPT
A) vaccination.
B) current tuberculosis infection.
C) previous tuberculosis infection.
D) immunity to tuberculosis.
E) being near someone with tuberculosis.

E

9

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its vaccine?
A) tuberculosis — toxoid
B) whooping cough — heat-killed bacteria
C) diphtheria — toxoid
D) influenza — viruses grown in embryonated eggs
E) pneumococcal pneumonia — capsular polysaccharides

A

10

Which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of
age?
A) coccidioidomycosis
B) diphtheria
C) legionellosis
D) scarlet fever
E) psittacosis

B

11

Which of the following requires treatment with both antibiotics and antitoxins?
A) diphtheria
B) tuberculosis
C) whooping cough
D) scarlet fever
E) psittacosis

A

12

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) epiglottitis — Haemophilus
B) Q fever — Rickettsia
C) psittacosis — Chlamydia
D) whooping cough — Bordetella
E) melioidosis — Burkholderia

B

13

Which of the following does NOT cause otitis media?
A) Streptococcus pneumoniae
B) Haemophilus influenzae
C) Streptococcus pyogenes
D) Moraxella catarrhalis
E) Coxiella burnetii

E

14

Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?
A) Pneumocystis
B) Aspergillus
C) Rhizopus
D) Mucor
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

15

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its reservoir?
A) tuberculosis — cattle
B) histoplasmosis — soil
C) psittacosis — parakeets
D) coccidioidomycosis — air
E) pneumocystis — humans

D

16

All of the following are true of the common cold EXCEPT
A) it is caused by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.
B) it is transmitted via aerosols and contact.
C) early treatment will drastically reduce the disease symptoms.
D) complications include laryngitis and otitis media.
E) the duration of symptoms is approximately one week

C

17

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages?
A) Bordetella pertussis
B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D) Streptococcus pyogenes
E) respiratory syncytial virus

A

18

Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod?
A) Bordetella pertussis
B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
C) Burkholderia pseudomallei
D) Streptococcus pyogenes
E) Pneumocystis jirovecii

B

19

Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes?
A) Bordetella pertussis
B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D) Streptococcus pyogenes
E) Blastomyces dermatidis

C

20

Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin?
A) Bordetella pertussis
B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D) Streptococcus pyogenes
E) Streptococcus pneumoniae

B

21

The most effective means of preventing influenza is
A) annual vaccination.
B) isolation of carriers.
C) vector control.
D) pasteurization of milk.
E) administration of amantadine.

A

22

Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?
A) Pneumocystis
B) Legionella
C) Histoplasma
D) Mycoplasma
E) rhinovirus

A

23

Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses?
A) Staphylococcus
B) Mycoplasma
C) Streptococcus
D) Blastomyces
E) Coccidioides

D

24

The primary victims of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 were
A) members of the military.
B) infants and the elderly.
C) residents of Spain; therefore, it was known as the “Spanish Flu.”
D) young adults.
E) residents of the U.S.

D

25

All of the following are used as first-line drugs for treating tuberculosis EXCEPT
A) ethambutol.
B) isoniazid.
C) fluoroquinolones.
D) rifampin.
E) pyrazinamide.

C

26

Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia?
A) Blastomyces
B) Coccidioides
C) Mycoplasma
D) Streptococcus
E) Mycobacterium

C

27

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash?
A) Blastomyces
B) Coccidioides
C) Mycoplasma
D) Streptococcus
E) RSV

D

28

Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms?
A) Blastomyces
B) Coccidioides
C) Mycoplasma
D) Streptococcus
E) Chlamydophila

B

29

Soil is a reservoir for all of the following EXCEPT
A) Q fever.
B) melioidosis.
C) blastomycosis.
D) histoplasmosis.
E) coccidioidomycosis.

A

30

A patient has pneumonia. Gram-negative rods are cultured on nutrient agar from a sputum
sample. The etiology is
A) Burkholderia pseudomallei.
B) Chlamydophila psittaci.
C) Haemophilus influenzae.
D) Legionella pneumophila.
E) Staphylococcus aureus.

A

31

The patient is suffocating because of an inflamed epiglottis. What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Corynebacterium
B) Haemophilus
C) Bordetella
D) Mycobacterium
E) RSV

B

32

The patient has a sore throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Corynebacterium
B) Rhinovirus
C) Bordetella
D) Streptococcus
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

E

33

The patient is suffocating because of the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat.
What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Corynebacterium
B) Haemophilus
C) Bordetella
D) Mycobacterium
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

A

34

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) Burkholderia — melioidosis
B) Coxiella — Q fever
C) Mycoplasma — walking pneumonia
D) Chlamydophila — psittacosis
E) Mycobacterium — whooping cough

E

35

All of the following are classified as fungi EXCEPT
A) Blastomyces.
B) Coccidioides.
C) Histoplasma.
D) Mycobacterium.
E) Pneumocystis

D

36

Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick-walled cysts. What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Blastomyces
B) Coccidioides
C) Histoplasma
D) Mycobacterium
E) Pneumocystis

E

37

Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows spherules. What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Blastomyces
B) Coccidioides
C) Histoplasma
D) Mycobacterium
E) Pneum

B

38

Which of the following statements regarding tuberculosis is FALSE?
A) Nearly 1/3 of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis.
B) Nearly 1/3 of the world’s population shows symptoms of tuberculosis.
C) It is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year.
D) At least 1/3 of those who are TB-positive are also HIV-positive.
E) Treatment requires at least six months of antibiotic therapy.
Answer: B

B

39

A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. What is the etiology of the symptoms?
A) Bordetella
B) Corynebacterium
C) Burkholderia
D) Mycobacterium
E) Mycoplasma

A

40

A patient who presents with red throat and tonsils can be diagnosed as having
A) streptococcal pharyngitis.
B) scarlet fever.
C) diphtheria.
D) the common cold.
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

E

41

A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains, fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Gram-positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has
A) tuberculosis.
B) influenza.
C) pneumococcal pneumonia.
D) mycoplasmal pneumonia.
E) the common cold.

C

42

Which of the following is NOT an intracellular parasite?
A) Chlamydophila
B) Coccidioides
C) Coxiella
D) Influenza virus
E) RSV

B

43

Which of the following is responsible for epidemics of respiratory disease in infants?
A) rhinovirus
B) adenovirus
C) respiratory syncytial virus
D) influenza
E) Mycoplasma

C

44

Which one of the following produces small “fried-egg” colonies on medium containing horse serum and yeast extract?
A) Chlamydophila
B) Legionella
C) Mycobacterium
D) Mycoplasma
E) Streptococcus

D

45

Legionella is transmitted by
A) airborne transmission.
B) foodborne transmission.
C) person-to-person contact.
D) fomites.
E) vectors.

A