Biology 120 Ch 31

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1

Which of the following do all fungi have in common?

A) meiosis in basidia

B) coenocytic hyphae

C) sexual life cycle

D) absorption of nutrients

E) symbioses with algae

D

2

The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce the monomer, an aminated molecule of β-glucose?

A) insect exoskeleton

B) plant cell walls

C) fungal cell walls

D) A and C only

E) A, B and C

D

3

The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce the monomer, an aminated molecule of β-glucose?

A) insect exoskeleton

B) plant cell walls

C) fungal cell walls

D) A and C only

E) A, B and C

C

4

When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?

A) haustoria

B) soredia

C) exoenzymes

D) increased oxygen levels

E) larger bacterial populations

C

5

Which of the following is not a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)?

A) They acquire their nutrients by absorption.

B) Their body plan is a netlike mass of filaments called a mycelium.

C) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils.

D) They may be saprobes, parasites, or mutualistic symbionts.

E) The nuclei of the mycelia are typically haploid.

C

6

The functional significance of porous septa in certain fungal hyphae is most similar to that represented by the ________ of certain animal cells, and by the ________ of certain plant cells.

A) desmosomes; tonoplasts

B) gap junctions; plasmodesmata

C) tight junctions; plastids

D) centrioles; plastids

E) flagella; central vacuoles

B

7

What is the primary role of a mushroom's underground mycelium?

A) absorbing nutrients

B) anchoring

C) sexual reproduction

D) asexual reproduction

E) protection

A

8

What do fungi and arthropods have in common?

A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic.

B) The haploid state is dominant in both groups.

C) Both groups are predominantly saprobic in nutrition.

D) The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin.

E) Both groups have cell walls.

D

9

In septate fungi, what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients, synthesized compounds, and organelles throughout the hyphae?

A) chitinous layers in cell walls

B) pores in septal walls

C) complex microtubular cytoskeletons

D) two nuclei

E) tight junctions that form in septal walls between cells

B

10

What best accounts for the extremely fast growth of a fungal mycelium?

A) a rapid distribution of synthesized proteins by cytoplasmic streaming

B) their lack of motility that requires rapid spread of hyphae

C) a long tubular body shape

D) the readily available nutrients from their predatory mode of nutrition

E) a dikaryotic condition that supplies greater amounts of proteins and nutrients

A

11

The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are

A) composed of hyphae.

B) referred to as a mycelium.

C) usually underground.

D) A and B only

E) A, B, and C

E

12

Both fungus-farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the β-glucose molecules that are derived from the digestion of plant leaves. What is the synthesized polysaccharide?

A) amylopectin

B) chitin

C) cellulose

D) lignin

E) glycogen

B

13

Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions: one from a septate species and the other from a coenocytic species. Compared with the septate species, the coenocytic species should have

A) fewer nuclei.

B) more pores.

C) less chitin.

D) less cytoplasm.

E) reduced cytoplasmic streaming.

C

14

Which of the following terms is not properly associated with the fungi as a kingdom?

A) decomposers

B) sexual and asexual spores

C) ecologically important

D) polyphyletic

E) absorptive nutrition

D

15

Which of the following cannot be assigned to any one kind of morphology (that is, unicellular or hyphate) or to any one fungal taxon?

A) yeasts

B) ascomycetes

C) club fungi

D) bread molds

E) ergot fungi

A

16

In fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which

A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures.

B) results in more genetic variation during sexual reproduction.

C) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time.

D) results in heterokaryotic cells.

E) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic.

D

17

If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally, then the cells of both dikaryotic and heterokaryotic fungi are essentially like ________ cells in terms of the gene products they can make.

A) haploid

B) diploid

C) alloploid

D) completely homozygous

E) completely hemizygous

B

18

What is a fungal process that has the opposite effect on chromosome number than the effect of meiosis?

A) mitosis

B) plasmogamy

C) crossing over

D) binary fission

E) karyogamy

E

19

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.

If a single, diploid G2 nucleus in an ascus contains 400 nanograms (ng) of DNA, then a single mature ascospore of this species should contain ________ ng of DNA, carried on a total of ________ chromosomes.

A) 100; 7

B) 100; 14

C) 200; 7

D) 200; 14

E) 400; 14

A

20

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.

What is the ploidy of a single mature Neurospora ascospore?

A) haploid

B) diploid

C) triploid

D) tetraploid

E) polyploid

A

21

Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores.

Each of the eight ascospores present at the end of mitosis has the same chromosome number and DNA content (ng) as each of the four cells at the end of meiosis. What must have occurred between the round of meiosis and the round of mitosis?

A) double fertilization

B) crossing over

C) nondisjunction

D) autopolyploidy

E) S phase

E

22

Cytokinesis is to nuclear division as ________ is to karyogamy.

A) syngamy

B) plasmogamy

C) gametogenesis

D) endosymbiosis

E) parasitism

B

23

Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes?

A) They are the second of five fungal phyla to have evolved.

B) They represent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified.

C) They are the group of fungi that have, at present, no known sexual stage.

D) They are the group that includes molds, yeasts, and lichens.

E) They include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae.

C

24

A chemical secreted by female Bombyx moths helps the male of the species locate her, at which time sexual reproduction may occur. This chemical is most similar in function to which chemicals used by certain fungi?

A) chitin

B) exoenzymes

C) lysergic acids

D) aflatoxins

E) pheromones

E

25

Which of the following is characterized by the lack of an observed sexual phase in its members' life cycle?

A) Ascomycota

B) Basidiomycota

C) Chytridiomycota

D) Deuteromycota

E) Zygomycota

D

26

A biologist is trying to classify a new organism on the basis of the following characteristics: fungus-like in appearance, reproduces by conidia, has no apparent sexual phase, and parasitizes woody plants. If asked for advice, to which group would you assign this new species?

A) Deuteromycota

B) Zygomycota

C) Ascomycota

D) Basidiomycota

E) Glomeromycota

A

27

Which of these structures are most likely to be a component of both chytrid zoospores and motile animal cells?

A) chloroplasts

B) 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules in flagella

C) cell walls composed of chitin

D) heterokaryons

E) haustoria

B

28

If the choanoflagellate protist from which animals are thought to have evolved were classified as an opisthokont, then what should be true of these choanoflagellates?

A) They should also have given rise to the chytrids.

B) They should be the common ancestor of the chytrids and the zygomycetes.

C) The end of the cell from which the flagellum emerges should be homologous to the posterior ends of animal sperm cells and chytrid zoospores.

D) They should perform heterotrophy by secretion of exoenzymes.

E) Like diplomonads and parabasalids, they should bear multiple flagella.

C

29

Considered at the taxonomic level of the kingdom, which of the following constitute a monophyletic clade?

A) mosses and zygomycetes

B) chytrids and fungi

C) algae and ascomycetes

D) chytrids and slime molds

E) mosses and fungi

B

30

Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants?

A) presence of "coal forests" and change in mode of nutrition

B) periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shape

C) predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell walls

D) colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells

E) continental drift and mode of spore dispersal

D

31

Which of the following characteristics is not shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi?

A) presence of hyphae

B) flagellated zoospores

C) absorptive mode of nutrition

D) chitinous cell walls

E) amino acid base sequences of some enzymes

B

32

If the multicellular condition is an adaptation, rather than an accident, then the multicellular condition of animals and fungi seems to have arisen

A) due to common ancestry.

B) by convergent evolution.

C) by inheritance of acquired traits.

D) by natural means, and is a homology.

E) More than one of these is correct.

B

33

Asexual reproduction in yeasts occurs by budding. Due to unequal cytokinesis, the "bud" cell receives less cytoplasm than the parent cell. Which of the following should be true of the smaller cell until it reaches the size of the larger cell?

A) It should produce fewer fermentation products per unit time.

B) It should produce ribosomal RNA at a slower rate.

C) It should be transcriptionally less active.

D) It should have reduced motility.

E) It should have a smaller nucleus.

A

34

Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.Zygomycota

B.Ascomycota

C.Basidiomycota

D.Glomeromycota

E.Chytridiomycota

This phylum contains organisms that most closely resemble the common ancestor of fungi and animals.

E

35

Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.Zygomycota

B.Ascomycota

C.Basidiomycota

D.Glomeromycota

E.Chytridiomycota

This phylum formerly included the members of the new phylum Glomeromycota, and may also contain the Microsporidia.

A

36

Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.Zygomycota

B.Ascomycota

C.Basidiomycota

D.Glomeromycota

E.Chytridiomycota

Members of this phylum produce two kinds of haploid spores, one kind being asexually produced conidia.

B

37

Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.Zygomycota

B.Ascomycota

C.Basidiomycota

D.Glomeromycota

E.Chytridiomycota

This phylum contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs.

C

38

Match the phyla below with the descriptions that follow. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A.Zygomycota

B.Ascomycota

C.Basidiomycota

D.Glomeromycota

E.Chytridiomycota

Members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae.

D

39

You have been given the assignment of locating living members of the phylum Glomeromycota. Where is the best place to look for these fungi?

A) between the toes of a person with "athlete's foot"

B) in stagnant freshwater ponds

C) the roots of vascular plants

D) growing on rocks and tree bark

E) the kidneys of cattle

C

40

What are the sporangia of bread molds?

A) asexual structures that produce haploid spores

B) asexual structures that produce diploid spores

C) sexual structures that produce haploid spores

D) sexual structures that produce diploid spores

E) vegetative structures with no role in reproduction

A

41

The gray-black filamentous mycelium growing on bread is most likely what kind of organism?

A) chytrid

B) ascomycete

C) basidiomycete

D) deuteromycete

E) zygomycete

E

42

The ascomycetes get their name from which aspect of their life cycle?

A) vegetative growth form

B) asexual spore production

C) sexual structures

D) shape of the spore

E) type of vegetative mycelium

C

43

Which of these fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike?

A) conidia and basidiocarps

B) sporangia and hyphae

C) soredia and gills

D) haustoria and arbuscles

E) zoospores and mycelia

D

44

You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this?

A) zygomycete

B) ascomycete

C) deuteromycete

D) chytrid

E) basidiomycete

B

45

Which has the least affiliation with all of the others?

A) Glomeromycota

B) endomycorrhizae

C) lichens

D) arbuscular mycorrhizae

E) symbiotic fungi

C

46

Which of these fungal structures is associated with asexual reproduction?

A) zygospore

B) basidium

C) conidium

D) ascus

E) antheridium

C

47

How are mushrooms and toadstools classified?

A) basidiomycetes

B) ascomycetes

C) deuteromycetes

D) zygomycetes

E) chytrids

A

48

Arrange the following from largest to smallest, assuming that they all come from the same fungus.

1. basidiocarp

2. basidium

3. basidiospore

4. mycelium

5. gill

A) 4, 5, 1, 2, 3

B) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3

C) 5, 1, 4, 3, 2

D) 5, 1, 3, 2, 4

E) 4, 1, 5, 2, 3

E

49

Mushrooms with gills, typically available in supermarkets, have meiotically produced spores located in or on ________ and belong to the phylum ________.

A) asci; Basidiomycota

B) hyphae; Zygomycota

C) basidia; Basidiomycota

D) asci; Ascomycota

E) hyphae; Ascomycota

C

50

A fungal spore germinates, giving rise to a mycelium that grows outward into the soil surrounding the site where the spore originally landed. What process best accounts for the observation that, upon reaching sexual maturity, this fungus produces a nearly circular fairy ring despite the fact that organic nutrients are not evenly distributed in the soil?

A) karyogamy

B) plasmogamy

C) alternation of generations

D) fermentation

E) cytoplasmic streaming

E

51

In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores?

A) asci

B) antheridia

C) rhizoids

D) gametangia

E) conidiophores

E

52

The nonpathogenic fungus that produces a fairy ring grows outward in concentric rings over the course of years. As a result, what should be less abundant in the soil within the ring soon after the fungal hyphae colonize it?

A) antibiotic molecules

B) living organic matter

C) living plant roots

D) dead organic matter

E) fungal exoenzymes

D

53

Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of bacteria are known as

A) antibodies.

B) aflatoxins.

C) hallucinogens.

D) antigens.

E) antibiotics.

E

54

Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and

A) mosses.

B) cyanobacteria.

C) green algae.

D) either A or B

E) either B or C

E

55

Lichens sometimes reproduce asexually using

A) aseptate fungal hyphae located within photosynthetic cells.

B) the fruiting bodies of fungi.

C) flagellated, conjoined spores of both the fungus and alga.

D) specialized conidiophores.

E) small clusters of fungal hyphae surrounding photosynthetic cells.

E

56

The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungi are considered

A) parasitic.

B) mutualistic.

C) commensal.

D) harmful to the plant partner.

E) the beginning stages of the formation of lichens.

B

57

If there were no mycorrhizae, then which of the following would be true?

A) There would be fewer infectious diseases.

B) We wouldn't have any antibiotics.

C) There would be no mushrooms for pizza.

D) Most vascular plants would be stunted in their growth.

E) Cheeses like blue cheese or Roquefort would not exist.

D

58

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?

A) Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells.

B) Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells.

C) Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.

D) The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae.

E) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure.

C

59

If haustoria were to appear within the photosynthetic partner of a lichen, and if the growth rate of the photosynthetic partner consequently slowed substantially, then this would support the claim that

A) algae and cyanobacteria are autotrophic.

B) lichens are not purely mutualistic relationships.

C) algae require maximal contact with the fungal partner in order to grow at optimal rates.

D) fungi get all of the nutrition they need via the "leakiness" of photosynthetic partners.

E) soredia are asexual reproductive structures combining both the fungal and photosynthetic partners.

B

60

How are the vascular plants that are involved in mycorrhizae and the photosynthetic cells that are involved in lichens alike?

A) They provide organic nutrients to fungal partners.

B) They secrete acids that keep the fungal partner from growing too quickly.

C) They are in intimate associations with chytrids.

D) They are digested by fungal exoenzymes while still alive.

E) They contain endosymbiotic fungi.

A

61

When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil. The most important concern of viticulturists who engage in this practice should be that the

A) fungicide might also kill the native yeasts residing on the surfaces of the grapes.

B) fungicide isn't also harmful to insect pests.

C) lichens growing on the vines' branches are not harmed.

D) fungicide might also kill mycorrhizae.

E) sheeting is transparent so that photosynthesis can continue.

D

62

The terms below all refer to symbiotic relationships that involve fungi except

A) pathogens.

B) mycoses.

C) spore production.

D) lichens.

E) mycorrhizae.

C

63

If Penicillium secreted penicillin while involved in a lichen relationship, what must have been true about its partner?

A) It should have lacked peptidoglycan in its cell wall.

B) It was probably a green alga.

C) It was probably not a member of the domain Bacteria.

D) It was probably not a heterotrophic prokaryote.

E) All of these are true.

E

64

Sexual reproduction has never been observed among the fungi that produce the blue-green marbling of blue cheeses. What is true of these fungi and others that do not have a a sexual stage?

A) They are currently classified among the deuteromycetes.

B) They do not form heterokaryons.

C) Their spores are produced by mitosis.

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

E

65

Both fungus-derived antibiotics and hallucinogens used by humans probably evolved in fungi as a means to

A) reduce competition for nutrients.

B) help humanity survive.

C) promote their ingestion of foodstuffs.

D) eliminate other fungi.

E) discourage animal predators.

A

66

A billionaire buys a sterile volcanic island that recently emerged from the sea. To speed the arrival of conditions necessary for plant growth, the billionaire might be advised to aerially sow ________ over the island.

A) basiodiospores

B) spores of ectomycorrhizae

C) soredia

D) yeasts

E) leaves (as food for fungus-farming ants)

C

67

Taxol is a drug derived from a certain species of yew trees. In humans, the drug's cancer-fighting properties may counter the effects of

A) antibiotics.

B) immunosuppressants.

C) aflatoxins.

D) yeasts.

E) hallucinogens.

C

68

The following conditions are all caused by a fungus except

A) AIDS.

B) athlete's foot.

C) ringworm.

D) candidiasis (Candida yeast infection).

E) coccidioidomycosis.

A

69

Fungi are beneficial to agriculture in all of the following ways except in that they

A) recycle nutrients that are tied up in dead organic matter.

B) increase the ability of most vascular plants to absorb minerals from the soil.

C) contribute to the initial stages of soil formation from rock.

D) form mycoses on leaves and stems.

E) may harbor photosynthetic partners that add nitrogenous compounds to the soil.

D

70

Basidia produce spores by a process known as

A) decomposition.

B) mitosis.

C) meiosis.

D) hyphae.

E) binary fission.

C

71

Karyogamy produces a

A) diploid zygote.

B) haploid zygote.

C) spores.

D) mycelium.

E) hypha.

A

72

Which of these contain two haploid nuclei?

A) the heterokaryotic stage of the fungal life cycle

B) zygote

C) spore-producing structures

D) mycelium

E) hypha

A

73

In sac fungi, karyogamy and meiosis occur in

A) ascospores.

B) antheridia.

C) asci.

D) ascogonia.

E) basidia.

C

74

A nucleus with an ascus undergoes meiosis, producing four haploid spores, which then undergo mitosis, producing eight haploid ascospores. These haploid ascospores contain a maximum of ________ different genetic types.

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

E) five

D

75

All fungi share which of the following characteristics?

A) symbiotic

B) heterotrophic

C) flagellated

D) pathogenic

E) saprobic

B

76

Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution?

A) the absence of chitin within the cell wall

B) coenocytic hyphae

C) flagellated spores

D) formation of resistant zygosporangia

E) parasitic lifestyle

C

77

Which of the following cells or structures are associated with asexual reproduction in fungi?

A) ascospores

B) basidiospores

C) conidiophores

D) zygosporangia

E) ascocarps

C

78

Which of the following is an example of an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a mycosis?

A) Claviceps purpurea, which produces ergots on rye that can cause serious symptoms in humans if milled into flour

B) Ophiostoma ulmi, which causes Dutch elm disease

C) the ascomycetes that cause ringworm

D) Candida albicans, which causes vaginal yeast infections

E) Penicillium, which is grown in culture to produce antibiotics

D

79

The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of the mycelium is primarily related to

A) the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms.

B) avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes.

C) the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats.

D) the increased probability of contact between different mating types.

E) an extensive surface area well suited for absorptive nutrition.

E

80

Sporangia on erect hyphae that produce asexual spores are characteristic of

A) ascomycetes.

B) basidiomycetes.

C) club fungi.

D) zygomycetes.

E) lichens.

D

81

Basidiomycetes differ from other fungi in that they

A) have no known sexual stage.

B) have long-lived dikaryotic mycelia.

C) produce resistant sporangia that are initially heterokaryotic before karyogamy and meiosis occur.

D) have members that are symbionts with algae in lichens.

E) form eight spores that line up in a sac in the order they were formed in meiosis.

B

82

Which of the following is the best description of a mold?

A) a deuteromycete, which has no known sexual stage

B) a coenocytic, rapidly growing mycelium

C) a mycorrhiza that envelops plant roots and reproduces without forming spores

D) a unicellular fungus that grows rapidly in moist habitats

E) the fast-growing mycelia of any asexually reproducing fungus

E

83

The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen is often a(n)

A) moss.

B) green alga.

C) brown alga.

D) ascomycete.

E) small vascular plant.

B

84

The closest relatives of fungi are probably

A) animals.

B) vascular plants.

C) mosses.

D) brown algae.

E) slime molds.

A