psychology modules 7-11 Flashcards


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1

Bethany is trying to focus on a conversation across the room during a party she is attending. This is because she thinks she heard her name above the din of the conversation. Her ability to hear her name is due to the mechanism of ________.

Broadbent's forgetting theory

the homecoming queen party phenomenon

selective attention

intimacy

selective attention

2

In the game show Jeopardy!, contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is ________.

nondeclarative

semantic

episodic

working

semantic

3

Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ________.

chunking

categorizing

rote rehearsal

cueing

chunking

4

The first step in the memory process is ________ information in a form that the memory system can use.

encoding

storing

retrieving

evaluating

encoding

5

Many older adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of ________.

an eidetic image

a flashbulb memory

a semantic memory

a procedural memory

a flashbulb memory

6

Personal facts and memories of one's personal history are parts of ________ memory.

episodic

nondeclarative

declarative

semantic

episodic

7

When a person's ________ is damaged or removed, anterograde amnesia, or the inability to form new memories, results.

hippocampus

prefrontal lobe

amygdala

cerebellum

hippocampus

8

Sitting in a very noisy restaurant, you are able to screen out all the other conversations around you so you can listen to the friend with whom you are conversing. This is an example of ________.

Broadbent's forgetting theory

the homecoming queen party phenomenon

selective attention

intimacy

selective attention

9

Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are _________.

receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage

the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response

bottom-up processing, selective attention, and top-down processing

acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery

receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage

10

Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ________.

cueing

shadowing

rote rehearsal

chunking

chunking

11

Which of the following statements is TRUE about retrieval?

It is a process that allows an extinguished CR to recover.

It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.

It is a process of getting information from the sensory receptors to the brain.

It is the reason that conditioned taste aversions last so long.

It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.

12

Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam, there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War. Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it starts with a "T." Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of a sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from ________.

encoding problems

storage inversion

the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

evaluation overload

the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

13

Memories for both general facts and personal information are called ________.

episodic memory

procedural memories

declarative memories

factual memory

declarative memories

14

Maintenance rehearsal is defined as ________.

processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered

analyzing new material in order to make it memorable

associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory

repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

15

As memories get older, they are most likely ________.

to get lost

to become stronger, more accurate, and more vivid

to be regarded as unreliable by the person using them

to become changed or altered in some fashion

to become changed or altered in some fashion

16

Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to ________.

interference from other information

decay or disuse

encoding failure

disinterest

interference from other information

17

Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin's problem was with the ________ component of memory.

encoding

storage

retrieval

retention

retrieval

18

Which memory system is the one that is a working, active system that processes the information within it?

long-term memory

short-term memory

secondary memory

cognitive dissonance

short-term memory

19

False positives occur when a person incorrectly "matches" a stimulus not in memory with one in memory who is just similar enough to lead the person to make a false identification. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that ________.

extinction of auditory memories causes the witness to forget what was said

witnesses are prone to habituate to the courtroom and forget what happened

false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate

there is usually some sort of unconscious motivation to provide inaccurate information

false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate

20

If one wants to increase the capacity of short-term memory, more items can be held through the process of ________.

chunking

decoding

rote rehearsal

data compression

chunking

21

Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of ________.

elaborative rehearsal

maintenance rehearsal

automatic encoding

selective attention

selective attention

22

You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?

condensed

permanent

elaborative

maintenance

maintenance

23

Trying to remember someone's name whom you met long ago is an example of what type of process?

storage

retrieval

encoding

decoding

retrieval

24

The Internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of ________ memory.

short-term

episodic

long-term

procedural

long-term

25

General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as parts of ________ memory.

episodic

nondeclarative

declarative

semantic

semantic

26

One problem with relying on eidetic imagery to study for tests is that ________.

you remember too much material and the professor will think you are cheating

eidetic images fade in .25 seconds as Sperling has shown

you may be able to recall the material but you don't necessarily understand it

it only helps you remember things from other cultures

you may be able to recall the material but you don't necessarily understand it

27

In the information processing model of memory, the process of storage would be analogous to which part of a modern computer?

a memory stick (or thumb drive)

a central processing unit

a wireless mouse and keyboard

a flat panel monitor

a memory stick (or thumb drive)

28

________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning

Learning

Memory

Memory

29

Suppose Tamika looks up a number in the telephone book. After getting a busy signal, a minute or so later she tries to call again—but has already forgotten the number! This example illustrates the limited duration of ________ memory.

sensory

short-term

echoic

implicit

short-term

30

Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?

short-term memory

long-term memory

sensory memory

implicit memory

long-term memory

31

________ is the retention of memory for some period of time.

Encoding

Storage

Retrieval

Evaluation

Storage

32

The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are ________.

sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

CS, UCS, UR, and CR

encoding, storage, and retrieval

shallow, medium, and deep processing

sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

33

Evidence suggests that short-term memories are stored in the ________.

cerebellum

prefrontal lobes of the cortex

hippocampus

amygdala

prefrontal lobes of the cortex

34

According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ________.

persona

personal unconscious

alter-ego

collective unconscious

collective unconscious

35

For Freud, the only personality structure present at birth is the ________.

id

ego

superego

preconscious

id

36

Mahmoud was just told that his father has cancer. Mahmoud's first response is that there must be a mistake and he demands that the doctor repeat his tests. Which defense mechanism is at work here?

reaction formation

denial

repression

undoing

denial

37

Freud believed that the ________ was the most important determining factor in human behavior and personality, and this theory was a shock to the Victorian era in which Freud lived.

id

preconscious mind

manifest awareness

unconscious mind

unconscious mind

38

What is Albert Bandura's term for the relationship among the three factors that influence personality?

feedback loops

learned responses

reciprocal determinism

external expectancies

reciprocal determinism

39

For the behaviorist, personality is a set of learned responses or ________.

traits

conditions

stimuli

habits

habits

40

One of the main differences between the psychoanalytic view and the social cognitive view is that ________.

the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not

the mind is more important to the psychoanalyst than the cognitivist

the psychoanalytic view requires feedback from clients and the social cognitive view does not

the social cognitive view is more abstract than the psychoanalytic view

the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not

41

Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?

Temperament and personality are the exact same thing.

Personality, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's temperament is built.

Temperament, which we are born with, is a vital part of personality.

Temperament refers to negative personal characteristics, while personality refers to positive personal characteristics.

Temperament, which we are born with, is a vital part of personality.

42

A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, personal characteristics, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ________ psychologist.

psychodynamic

social cognitive learning

psychoanalytic

trait

social cognitive learning

43

When anxiety provoking memories are prevented from reaching conscious awareness, such as not remembering lying to parents, it is called ________.

denial

sublimation

repression

regression

repression

44

The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called ________.

personality

nurture

a trait

nature

personality

45

What is Freud's term for the unconscious efforts by the ego to deny or distort reality for the purpose of protecting itself when conflict becomes too intense?

false cognitions

coping techniques

disordered thinking

psychological defense mechanisms

psychological defense mechanisms

46

When Candace ordered a hot fudge sundae and a diet soda, she told herself that the calories from the ice cream really were not a big deal because the diet soda sort of balanced it all out. Which of Freud's defense mechanisms is motivating Candace?

repression

rationalization

sublimation

projection

rationalization

47

The ________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one's behavior.

psychodynamic

humanistic

trait

behaviorist

behaviorist

48

Carl Jung's term for the part of our personality that Freud referred to as the unconscious was the ________.

personal unconscious

archetype

collective unconscious

animus

personal unconscious

49

Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the ________.

collective

animus

anima

preconscious

collective

50

Watson and Skinner believed that personality is the result of:

operant conditioning and vicarious learning.

conditioning and reinforcement.

observational learning and classical conditioning.

behavioral reinforcement.

conditioning and reinforcement.

51

When one thinks of "value judgment" in relation to personality, one is thinking about ________.

soul

character

temperament

conscience

character

52

According to Freud, rationality, logical thinking, and reasoning are controlled by the ________.

pleasure principle

ego

superego

animus

ego

53

Sigmund Freud proposed that his patients' disorders resulted most often from psychological conflicts related to ________.

sex

denial

marriage

depression

sex

54

According to Albert Bandura, a person's expectancy about his or her skills and ability to accomplish a goal is known as ________.

self-efficacy

locus of control

phenomenology

reciprocal determinism

self-efficacy

55

The ________ perspective is called the "third force" in personality theory.

psychoanalytic

behaviorist

cognitive

humanistic

humanistic

56

The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is ________.

inventories are standardized

interviews are standardized

interviews have higher validity

There are no major differences.

inventories are standardized

57

Jerod has saved plenty of money and has a lucrative business that he enjoys. He likes to volunteer his time in the community and enjoys the company of others—but still saves time to be alone. One of his favorite things to do in the evening is to sit outside and watch the sunset. Carl Rogers might suggest that Jerod is ________.

retired

experiencing a superiority complex

self-actualizing

emotionally conditioned

self-actualizing

58

Which of the following statements is a criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?

It relies far too much on the influence of environments.

It spends way too much time looking at unconscious determinants of behaviors.

It paints too rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature.

Its concept of womb envy cannot be empirically validated.

It paints too rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature.

59

Which personality test relies on the interpretation of inkblots to understand personality?

MMPI

16PF

TAT

Rorschach

Rorschach

60

Carl Rogers emphasized accepting people for what they are, not for what you would like them to be. This acceptance is termed ________.

conditional esteem

unconditional esteem

conditional positive regard

unconditional positive regard

unconditional positive regard

61

Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?

humanistic perspective

trait perspective

projective perspective

inventory perspective

humanistic perspective

62

If you are completing a paper/pencil test that requires you to read statements and indicate "true" or "false" as to whether or not they apply to you, then you are likely taking a(n) ________.

observational measure

TAT

projective test

personality inventory

personality inventory

63

Which of these is an acronym that could help you remember the Big Five traits?

START

BEGIN

DUNES

OCEAN

OCEAN

64

What are the Big Five personality traits?

conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, extraversion, dominance

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

sensation seeking, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, dominance

neuroticism, psychoticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

65

What do Abraham Maslow's and Carl Rogers's theories have in common?

They are both stage theories.

They focus on unconscious motivation.

They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.

They both fit in the learning/cognitive perspective.

They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.

66

According to Rogers, people brought up with unconditional positive regard ________.

tend to be vain and narcissistic

are unlikely to be fully functioning

feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviors

live lives directed toward what others want and value

feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviors

67

In Carl Rogers's theory, our perception of our abilities, traits, and characteristics is known as ________.

personality

self-regard

self-esteem

self-concept

self-concept

68

The field of ________ is devoted to the study of just how much of an individual's personality is due to inherited traits.

behavioral genetics

genetic microbiology

genomanalysis

geometric heredity

behavioral genetics

69

What did Gordon Allport think about traits?

He thought they were like stages.

He thought they were wired into the nervous system.

He thought they were learned.

He thought they were the result of cognitive modeling.

He thought they were wired into the nervous system.

70

If Sylvia is described as good-natured, trusting, and helpful then she probably is fairly high on the Big Five factor known as ________.

extraversion

neuroticism

openness

agreeableness

agreeableness

71

When you accept someone—faults and all—regardless of whether or not you like the individual or approve of his or her lifestyle, Rogers suggests that you are exhibiting ________.

restraint

unconditional positive regard

self-editing

genuineness

unconditional positive regard

72

Research on ________ supports the hypothesis that personality differences are due in part to genetic differences.

the heritability of traits

peak experiences

the use of defense mechanisms

unconditional positive regard

the heritability of traits

73

Someone interested in an inventory that might be helpful for making a career choice should try ________.

the TAT

a Rorschach test

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

74

The most commonly used personality inventory is the ________.

MMPI–2

MBTI

TAT

CPI

MMPI–2

75

According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when ________.

a person has low self-esteem

there is matching between the real self and ideal self

there is a mismatch between the real self and ideal self

the individual receives too much unconditional positive regard

there is a mismatch between the real self and ideal self

76

Ellen has been described as creative, imaginative, curious, artistic, and nonconforming. She is likely to obtain an elevated score on a questionnaire designed to measure ________.

extraversion

agreeableness

conscientiousness

openness

openness

77

What is one criticism of projective tests?

They are inappropriate for use with children.

They are too simple in their administration and scoring.

They have low validity and reliability.

They fail to take into account differences in the testing environments.

They have low validity and reliability.

78

Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists rely primarily on ________.

projective tests

direct observation

detailed analysis of dreams

interviews

direct observation

79

A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality, is likely suffering from

schizophrenia

bipolar disorder

dissociative identity disorder

passive-aggressive personality

schizophrenia

80

An irrational, persistent fear is called

A phobia

An obsession

Mania

A compulsion

A phobia

81

Delusions are ___________.

hallucinations

catatonias

false beliefs

maladaptive true beliefs

false beliefs

82

An obsession is an thought while a compulsion is a _________________.

false belief

stimulus

behavior

personality disorder

behavior

83

David, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. He is most likely suffering from:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

schizophrenia

antisocial disorder

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

84

Delusions of ________ are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in some way.

persecution

grandeur

reference

influence

persecution

85

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seems to be related to ________.

low levels of thyroxine

low levels of sunlight

high levels of thyroxine

high levels of sunlight

low levels of sunlight

86

During his college years, Jacob often experienced episodes of intense fear accompanied by the physical sensations of a heart attack. Jacob might have experienced a ________ disorder while in college.

personality

mood

panic

eating

panic

87

According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of ________.

repressed thoughts and memories that try to resurface

a set of learned responses

illogical thinking patterns

chemical imbalances and brain damage

illogical thinking patterns

88

A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called ________ disorder.

obsessive-compulsive

delusional

post-traumatic stress

passive-aggressive

obsessive-compulsive

89

George is suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder. If he tries to stop his compulsive behaviors, he is likely to experience ________.

severe depression

severe anxiety

amnesia

hypochondriasis

severe anxiety

90

Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ________.

mood disorders

dissociative neurosis

anxiety disorders

amnesia

anxiety disorders

91

________ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The Physician's Desk Reference

The Textbook of Psychological Disorders

The Textbook of Physiological Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

92

Antisocial, paranoid, and schizoid are all types of ________ disorders.

mood

dissociative

personality

anxiety

personality

93

A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from ________.

schizophrenia

bipolar disorder

a dissociative disorder

passive-aggressive personality

schizophrenia

94

An irrational fear of some object or specific situation is called ________.

agoraphobia

a social phobia

a specific phobia

an interactive phobia

a specific phobia

95

Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes harm to others, or harms their ability to function in daily life, is called ________.

a psychological disorder

humors

stress syndrome

adaptive behavior

a psychological disorder

96

A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month, is called ________.

acute stress disorder

external locus of control

catastrophic stress

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

97

Linda is afraid of cats because, when she was a little girl, a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the BEST explanation of Linda's fear?

cognitive

behavioral

sociocultural

psychoanalytic

behavioral

98

Disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination are called ________.

paraphilias

anxiety disorders

somatoform disorders

dissociative disorders

dissociative disorders

99

Gigi, who has schizophrenia, believes that she was sent by God to one day rule the world. Her belief is an example of a(n) ________.

phobia

delusion

alogia

hallucination

delusion

100

People with ________ disorders have an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating to others.

personality

somatoform

affective

schizophrenic

personality

101

False sensory perceptions that often take the form of hearing voices are called ________.

delusions

hallucinations

obsessions

compulsions

hallucinations

102

Which of the following is one definition of abnormal behavior?

behavior that is rare

behavior that is consistent with the norms of society

behavior that does not create distress

behavior that is adaptive

behavior that is rare

103

Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ________ disorders.

conversion

somatoform

mood

dissociative

mood

104

An eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting is called ________.

anorexia nervosa

bulimia

hormone under secretion

leptin reduction

bulimia

105

Arlene has an irrational fear of flying in airplanes. She is probably suffering from a(n) ________.

mania

obsession

compulsion

phobia

phobia

106

DSM stands for:

Diagrammatic and Statistical Manual.

Deviance and Sadism Manual.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.

Developmental Sickness Model.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.

107

Tad seems to thrive when faced with difficult challenges and usually feels in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ________ personality.

stressed

Type B

Type C

hardy

hardy

108

People living under stressful conditions tend to get sick more often than they would otherwise. How do researchers in psychoneuroimmunology explain this phenomenon?

The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.

The stress response in the long run leads to a lowering of the heart rate, which makes the heart inefficient.

The stress response makes muscles stronger, which places a greater burden on the heart and respiratory systems.

The body tends to adapt to the constant call for the stress response and, thus, future responses are not as strong as before.

The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.

109

A person who thrives on stress but lacks the anger and hostility typical of some others who have the Type A personality is said to have a ________ personality.

Type C

Type B

hardy

optimistic

hardy

110

Research has consistently shown that having a good ________ is of critical importance in a person's ability to cope with stressors.

friendship

camaraderie

therapist

social support system

social support system

111

People who respond to life events with a laid back, relaxed, easygoing attitude, and are slow to anger are said to have a ________ personality.

Type A

Type S

Type B

Type C

Type B

112

________ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.

Stress

Burnout

Dysphoria

Distress

Stress

113

When looking at a glass that is neither completely full nor completely empty, a(n) ________ might say "that glass is half full," while a(n) ________ might say "no, that glass is half empty!"

pessimist; optimist

realist; pessimist

optimist; realist

optimist; pessimist

optimist; pessimist

114

Sasha is experiencing stress in her workplace that is causing her to feel dissatisfied and pessimistic. As a result, she has a desire to quit her job. Sasha is experiencing ________.

road rage

eustress

poverty-related stress

burnout

burnout

115

A person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, easily annoyed, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger is said to be exhibiting a ________ personality.

Type A

Type S

Type B

Type C

Type A

116

Since Melinda is attempting to make a difficult choice as whether or not to file for divorce, she is probably experiencing ________.

learned helplessness

conflict

burnout

little perceived control

conflict

117

Jacob's father has always wanted him to be a lawyer. He has encouraged him to get good grades, graduate college earlier than his peers, and work as hard as he can. Jacob does not care about going to law school, but he does so to please his father. Jacob is responding to ________.

anxiety

pressure

overload

cognitive dissonance

pressure

118

Stress has been shown to put people at a higher risk for ________.

unplanned pregnancy

heart attack and stroke

promotions at work

schizophrenia

heart attack and stroke

119

Researchers have found an association between daily hassles and ________.

colds and headaches

cancer and heart disease

hypertension and obesity

heart disease and schizophrenia

colds and headaches

120

Coping strategies can be either ________-focused or ________-focused in nature.

problem; emotion

distress; eustress

physiologically; spiritually

internally; externally

problem; emotion

121

The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ________.

mental illness

coronary heart disease

cancer

respiratory illnesses

coronary heart disease

122

The ________ measures the amount of stress in a college student's life resulting from major life changes.

University Students Stress Assessment (USSA)

College Students New Experiences Assessment Scale (CSNEAS)

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)

College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS)

College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS)

123

Edgar is learning deep-breathing techniques to reduce anxiety about having been robbed at knifepoint. This is an example of ________.

problem-focused coping

emotion-focused coping

avoidance

reappraisal

emotion-focused coping

124

Which of the following traits is associated with people who live to be very old?

aggressiveness

being easygoing

inflexibility

tenseness

being easygoing

125

Professor Willoughby assigns his class a term paper that is to make up 30% of their final grade. The students are given clear guidelines about what is expected in this assignment and are given two months to complete the assignment. Because students know that this paper is important, but not the only thing upon which their grades will be based, this assignment would be likely to cause ________.

frustration

distress

aggression

eustress

eustress

126

________ people typically do not live as long as the average life expectancy.

Aggressive

Easygoing

Cheerful

Active

Aggressive

127

The ________ control one has, the ________ the degree of stress.

more; greater

less; greater

less; lower

Control has nothing to do with stress.

less; greater

128

An urgent demand or expectation for our behavior that comes from an outside source is called ________.

anxiety

pressure

overload

cognitive dissonance

pressure

129

Which major life event on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale has the highest number of life change units?

divorce

marriage

death of a spouse

damage to the home

death of a spouse

130

Hachi is working against a deadline. She must have a term paper written by 8 a.m. tomorrow. The deadline is an example of a ________.

stress

stressor

stress response

stress reaction

stressor

131

________ refers to the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors.

Acute stress

Eustress

Distress

Catastrophic stress

Distress

132

Which Type A personality characteristic is the key trait that is linked to heart disease?

hostility

compulsiveness

competitiveness

chronic irritability

hostility

133

Working a second job to pay off credit cards is an example of ________.

problem-focused coping

emotion-focused coping

distraction

reappraisal

problem-focused coping

134

An events that causes some sort of stress reaction is referred to as ________.

a hassle

a catastrophe

eustress

a stressor

a stressor