Ch 19

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1

1) The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.

TRUE

2

2) Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart.

FALSE

3

3) Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane.

FALSE

4

4) The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis.

TRUE

5

5) The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole.

TRUE

6

6) The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues.

TRUE

7

7) An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart.

TRUE

8

8) Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses.

TRUE

9

9) An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance.

TRUE

10

10) Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid.

TRUE

11

1) Reduction in the concentration of albumin in blood plasma would alter capillary exchange by ________. A) increasing hydrostatic pressure and blood volume, blood pressure increases B) decreasing colloid osmotic pressure and edema will occur C) increasing hydrostatic pressure and edema will occur D) decreasing colloid osmotic pressure and blood volume, blood pressure increases

B

12

2) If a person were to have substantial blood loss you would expect to see all of the following physiological events to except one. Select the least likely response to substantial blood loss. A) increasing vasomotor tone B) decreased heart rate C) increases peripheral resistance D) a weak, thread pulse

B

13

3) During a marathon which of the following hormones is least likely to be released by the runner? A) epinephrine B) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) C) angiotensin II D) atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

D

14

4) If a person stands up suddenly from the prone (lying) position they may feel a sudden dizzy or lightheadedness. Which of the following is the least likely physiological response to this situation? A) increased sympathetic output to the heart B) faster heart rate and greater heart contractility C) increased parasympathetic nerve impulses to the heart D) increasing peripheral resistance due to vasoconstriction

C

15

5) A drug that restricts the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) would like result in all of the following physiologic changes but one. Which of the following is the least likely to result from a drug blocking ACE activity? A) decreased peripheral resistance due to decreases vasomotor tone B) lower levels of circulating aldosterone and lowered sodium reabsorption C) increased thirst and higher blood volume D) increased urine output due to reduction in circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

C

16

6) Which of the following would not be expected from taking a diuretic drug? A) decreased blood pressure B) greater stress on the heart to provide adequate perfusion C) increased urine output D) lower plasma volume

B

17

7) A person suddenly gaining significant amounts of adipose tissue can expect all of the following physiological changes except one. Which of the following is least likely to occur with a sudden and significant gain in adipose tissue? A) increased angiogenesis and higher peripheral resistance B) higher peripheral resistance and higher blood pressure C) increased risk of developing atherosclerosis D) lower heart rate and reduced blood flow

D

18

8) In the brain the fluid that filters out of capillaries is highly regulated. You would expect to see ________ feeding the brain. A) continuous capillaries, with no intercellular clefts B) sinusoid capillaries, with incomplete basement membrane C) fenestrated capillaries, with thin diaphragms made of extracellular glycoproteins D) metarterioles leading directly to thoroughfare cannels

A

19

9) In red bone marrow newly formed blood cells enter the circulation. You would expect to see many ________ type of capillaries in red bone marrow. A) metarterioles B) continuous capillaries C) sinusoid capillaries D) fenestrated capillaries

C

20

10) The aorta receives the full force of blood exiting the heart during ventricular systole. Which of the following statements best describes the adaptive anatomy of the aorta? A) Smooth muscle is relatively thin in the aorta to increase lumen size and systemic blood flow. B) Elastic fibers are extensive in the tunica media of the aorta and dampen the pulse pressure generated by the heart. C) The aorta's tunica media is thick with dense regular connective tissue to withstand the blood's pressure. D) The tunica external of the aorta is nearly absent compared to other vessels.

B

21

11) Which of the following statements is not true of the precapillary sphincters? A) They decrease the osmotic pressure in the thoroughfare channel. B) They increase or decrease rates of perfusion to the tissues served by the true capillaries. C) They allow blood to bypass the true capillaries that are fed by the metarteriole. D) They regulate the flow of blood to tissues served by the true capillaries.

A

22

12) Which of the following would not promote filtration from the arteriole end of the capillary bed? A) increasing blood pressure B) reducing hydrostatic pressure within the interstitial fluid C) increasing plasma protein concentration D) relaxing precapillary sphincters

C

23

13) Which of the following would not promote reabsorption from the venous end of the capillary bed? A) increasing solute concentration in the nearby interstitial fluid B) decreasing hydrostatic pressure of the blood. C) reducing solute concentration in the nearby interstitial fluid D) increasing solute concentration in the plasma of the circulating blood

A

24

14) In general it is expected that ________. A) osmotic pressure will be lower in the arteriole end of the capillary bed compared to the venous end B) hydrostatic pressure will rise as blood moves away from the arteriole end of the capillary bed C) hydrostatic pressure will drop as blood moves away from the arteriole end of the capillary bed D) hydrostatic pressure will remain constant throughout the capillary bed

C

25

15) In general it is expected that ________. A) hydrostatic pressure will remain constant throughout the capillary bed B) osmotic pressure will be higher in the arteriole end of the capillary bed compared to the venous end C) osmotic pressure will be lower in the arteriole end of the capillary bed compared to the venous end D) osmotic pressure will remain relatively consistent throughout the capillary bed

D

26

16) Which of the following is most likely to occur in the arteriovenous shuts present in the blood vessels of the finger tips and toes? A) Exercise will result in vasoconstriction in the arteriovenous shuts. B) Warmer temperatures will result in vasoconstriction in the arteriovenous shuts. C) Colder temperatures will result in vasodilation in the arteriovenous shuts. D) Colder temperatures will result in vasoconstriction in the arteriovenous shuts.

D

27

17) Which of the following best describes the benefit of the vasomotion process? A) It provides a balance between adequate perfusion to all of the tissues while maintaining blood's pressure. B) It allows for rapid increase in blood flow to vital organs during fight or flight response. C) It decreases hydrostatic pressure while also increasing osmotic pressure to enhance reabsorption. D) It lowers blood's pressure by reducing the distribution of blood flow to all of the tissues in the capillary bed.

A

28

18) The velocity and pressure of blood is slowest and lowest in the capillary beds. Which of the following is not an accurate description of the benefits of slow, low pressure blood in the capillary beds? A) Lower pressure on the venus end of the capillary bed allows for greater reabsorption of fluid back to the plasma. B) Slower blood flow through capillaries allows more time for diffusion to take place in the capillary bed. C) Lower pressure in the capillary bed helps to increase pressure in the venus circulation. D) Lower pressure reduces the chance of injury to delicate capillary vessels.

C

29

19) Which of the following would have the least influence on blood pressure? A) peripheral resistance B) cardiac output C) white blood cell count D) blood volume

C

30

20) Which of the following chemicals effects blood pressure for both the short and long term? A) atrial natriuretic peptide B) angiotensin II C) nitric acid D) aldosterone

B

31

21) Which statement best describes arteries? A) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium. B) All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. C) All carry blood away from the heart. D) All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

C

32

22) Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________. A) capillaries B) arterioles C) veins D) arteries

A

33

23) Which of the following statements regarding the hepatic portal system is false? A) Its major vessels are the superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic veins. B) It consists of a vein connecting two capillary beds together. C) It carries nutrients, toxins, and microorganisms to the liver for processing. D) It branches off of the inferior vena cava.

D

34

24) The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________. A) elastic arteries B) arterioles C) muscular arteries D) capillaries

C

35

25) Each of the following describes the action of aldosterone except one. Which of the following does not describe the activity of aldosterone hormone? A) It will result in higher sodium levels in the urine. B) It promotes an increase in blood pressure. C) It promotes an increase in sodium reabsorption from the kidney to the blood. D) It will reduce urine output.

A

36

26) The pulse pressure is ________. A) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure B) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure C) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure) D) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

D

37

27) Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign? A) increased heart rate B) cold, clammy skin C) rapidly falling blood pressure D) rapid, thready pulse

C

38

28) Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise? A) Blood flow to the kidneys increases. B) Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs. C) The skin will be cold and clammy. D) Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

D

39

29) Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels? A) The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter. B) They contain a large quantity of elastic tissue. C) They distribute blood to various parts of the body. D) Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.

A

40

30) Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure? A) chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes B) neural controls C) renal regulation D) baroreceptor-initiated reflexes

C

41

31) Brain blood flow autoregulation ________. A) is less sensitive to pH than to a decreased oxygen level B) is controlled by cardiac centers in the pons C) is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist D) causes constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to a drop in systemic blood pressure

C

42

32) Blood flow to the skin ________. A) is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells B) is controlled mainly by decreasing pH C) increases when environmental temperature rises D) increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze

C

43

33) Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls? A) hydrostatic pressure only B) hydrostatic and osmotic pressure C) plasma and formed element concentration D) blood volume and viscosity

B

44

34) Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock? A) vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone B) cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels C) circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant D) hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume

A

45

35) Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation? A) tunica externa B) tunica adventitia C) tunica media D) tunica intima

C

46

36) The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________. A) significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius B) significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter C) insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary D) the only factor that influences resistance

A

47

37) The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________. A) shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea B) always fatal C) the form of shock caused by anaphylaxis D) any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally

A

48

38) Which of the following is the most significant source of blood flow resistance? A) blood viscosity B) blood vessel diameter C) total blood vessel length D) blood vessels type

B

49

39) The term ductus venosus refers to ________. A) damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins B) a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity C) a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs D) a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

D

50

40) Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable? A) Low blood pressure is associated with longer life span than high blood pressure. B) Low capillary pressure reduces the load of drainage the lymphatic drainage must handle. C) Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them. D) Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute-containing fluid out of the bloodstream.

A

51

41) The pulse rate depends on all of the following except one. Select the one answer the does not affect a pulse rate reading. A) activity B) the vessel selected to palpate C) emotions D) postural changes

B

52

42) Which of the following is least involved in pulmonary circulation? A) right ventricle B) superior vena cava C) pulmonary arteries and veins D) left atrium

B

53

43) Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer. A) tunica externa B) tunica adventitia C) tunica intima D) tunica media

C

54

44) Due to the branching of arteries the type of arteries that would be most numerous would be ________. A) arterioles B) pulmonary arteries C) muscular arteries D) elastic arteries

A

55

45) Which of the following is not true regarding fenestrated capillaries? A) Fenestrated capillaries in endocrine organs allow hormones rapid entry into the blood. B) Fenestrated capillaries are essential for filtration of blood plasma in the kidney. C) Fenestrated capillaries form the blood-brain barrier. D) Fenestrated capillaries in the small intestine receive nutrients from digested food.

C

56

46) These capillaries may be lined with phagocytes that can extend their process into the plasma to catch "prey." A) fenestrations B) anastomoses C) thoroughfare channels D) sinusoids

D

57

47) Factors that aid venous return include all except ________. A) venous valves B) activity of skeletal muscles C) pressure changes in the thorax D) urinary output

D

58

48) Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension? A) 140/90 B) 110/60 C) 120/80 D) 170/96

D

59

49) Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure. A) Excess albumen transport protein production would decrease blood pressure. B) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase. C) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery. D) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.

B

60

50) Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________. A) nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers B) chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide C) the dural sinus reflex D) renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction

C

61

51) The velocity of blood flow is ________. A) slower in the veins than in the capillaries because veins have a large diameter B) slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest C) in direct proportion to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels D) slower in the arteries than in capillaries because arteries possess a relatively large diameter

B

62

52) Select the correct statement about blood flow. A) It is relatively constant through all body organs. B) Blood flow through the entire vascular system is proportional to cardiac output. C) It is measured in mm Hg. D) It is greatest where resistance is highest.

B

63

53) A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________. A) left upper arm B) myocardium of the heart C) left side of the head and neck D) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

D

64

54) Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________. A) skin temperature B) ADH C) the hypothalamic "thermostat" D) intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms

D

65

55) A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________. A) decreased size of the heart muscle B) increased incidence of coronary artery disease C) increased work of the left ventricle D) increased damage to blood vessel endothelium

A

66

56) The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following? A) chemoreceptors B) altering blood volume C) reflex arcs involving baroreceptors D) reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers

B

67

57) Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________. A) kidney disease B) stress C) smoking D) obesity

A

68

58) Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation? A) heart B) kidney C) lungs D) liver

C

69

59) Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________. A) 150/90 B) 120/80 C) 90/55 D) 130/80

C

70

60) If a person has lost a significant amount of blood but still maintains a normal blood pressure it does not necessarily mean that the person is maintaining adequate perfusion. Which of the following best explains why this is so? A) The heart has increased its rate to increase cardiac output. B) Blood vessels are constricting causing greater peripheral resistance. C) The heart has increased its contractile force increasing cardiac output. D) The sympathetic nervous system has increased its nervous impulses.

B

71

61) What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth? A) ligamentum arteriosum/ fossa ovalis B) ligamentum teres/ fossa ovalis C) fossa ovalis/ ligamentum arteriosum D) ligamentum arteriosum/ ligamentum teres

A

72

62) Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds? A) a local increase in pH B) an increase in local tissue carbon dioxide C) a decrease in local tissue oxygen content D) a local increase in histamine

A