Which of these glands is responsible for regulating minerals in the body but is also part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
The Adrenal Glands
What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What gland secretes growth hormone?
You would predict that iodized salt would have no effect on any cases of ____________.
Which of the following would result from hypoparathyroidism?
neurons becoming more excitable and producing tingling sensations
What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release?
Aldosteronism will cause ______.
decreased secretion of renin
Cushing's syndrome and aldosteronism have the same effects on ______.
Two adrenal glands make hormones that are essential for life. However, in adrenogenital syndrome, females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution; this occurs due to ______.
lack of enzymes the adrenal gland needs to make cortisol and aldosterone
What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?
control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?
GH (growth hormone)
Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine (“letdown”) reflex?
Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?
What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?
In this type of diabetes target cells do not respond normally to insulin.
In this type of diabetes no insulin is produced.
Type 1 diabetes
In both types of diabetes glucose levels remain higher than normal.
type 1 and type 2diabetes,
When blood glucose levels are high
The pancreas releases insulin.
A liver cell responds to insulin by
Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?
Body cells that respond to insulin include
Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
When blood glucose levels are low
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called
Diabetes mellitus is a disease of sugar balance. In type 1 diabetes,
the body's immune system gradually destroys the cells that produce
insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become less responsive
to the hormone insulin.
Insulin plays a vital role in carbohydrate metabolism. What is its role?
Insulin is needed for cells to pick up glucose from the blood; without insulin, more glucose will remain in the blood.
You are working in the free clinic when Father X comes in. You know
him well; he is a type 2 diabetic who keeps his sugar under control
with diet and exercise but is often in the clinic with homeless
patients from the shelter he runs in the Episcopalian church down the
On this visit, Father X has brought in a thin man in his twenties named Joe. Joe appears confused and lethargic. He is breathing heavily and has a strong fruity odor. Father X tells you he is concerned about Joe because last night Joe was up every half-hour or so to use the bathroom and get water. Father X knows these are signs of diabetes, so he wants to get Joe checked out. He also tells you that Joe has not been drinking; they have a breathalyzer at the shelter, and Joe tested clean when he checked in the night before.
Joe's blood pressure is a little low at 95/60 mm Hg and his heart rate is a little high at 96 bpm. When you take his pulse, you notice that his skin is dry and “tents” up when pinched − a sign of dehydration. His respirations are more rapid than normal, 25 breaths/min, and heavy. His blood glucose is elevated at 320 mg/dL. His urine also contains glucose, and has a lower pH than normal. When you take his history he tells you that type 1 diabetes runs in his family.
Many of Joe's signs and symptoms can be related to the loss of glucose in his urine. Normally, urine does not contain glucose. When plasma glucose levels are elevated, however, some of the glucose from the plasma passes into the urine. Apply the principle of osmosis to explain why Joe was getting up all night to use the bathroom and why he has low blood pressure and signs of dehydration.Choose the most accurate explanation for Joe’s problem.
The frequent urination is happening because when glucose moved into his urine, water also followed it. This removed water from his plasma, decreasing his blood volume and dehydrating him
You have explained Joe's dehydration and low blood pressure. But he
had some other unusual signs and symptoms. Let's look again:
Joe appears confused and lethargic. He is breathing heavily and has a strong fruity odor. His respirations are more rapid than normal, 25 breaths/min, and heavy. His blood glucose is elevated at 240 mg/dL. His urine also has a lower pH than normal.
Insulin does not explain these problems. They are due to a hormone from the alpha cells of the pancreas − glucagon. This hormone is released in response to many stimuli, including the sympathetic nervous system. Let's apply the functions of glucagon to explain why Joe has a low urine pH and a fruity odor.
Table 21.3 Factors Affecting Insulin and Glucagon Release
Factor Effect on insulin secretion Effect on glucagon secretion↑ Plasma [glucose]IncreaseDecrease↑ Plasma [amino acids]IncreaseIncrease↑ Plasma [GIP]IncreaseIncrease↑ Parasympathetic activityIncreaseIncrease↑ Sympathetic activityDecreaseIncrease↑ Plasma [epinephrine]DecreaseIncrease
Sympathetic activity (stress response to low blood volume)-Alpha Cells in the pancreas increased glucagon secretion-adipose tissue increased lipolysis-increased plasma fatty acids, Liver cells also increased ketone synthesis-increased plasma ketones-that decreased plasma pH that caused a fruity odor and decreased urine pH.
One of the more experienced nurses says it is easy to spot a patient with ketoacidosis because of his/her heavy breathing. Why would somebody with ketones and fatty acids in his/her blood breathe heavily?
Joe’s heavy breathing is a response to the acid in his blood. By exhaling more, he will remove CO2 from his blood and bring the blood’s pH up
The doctor wants to give Joe an insulin injection, but Joe is
unwilling to take it. He tells you that his little sister was on
insulin and died in the night after taking her shot.
How could insulin hurt somebody with diabetes?
Giving too much insulin can lower plasma glucose levels until the brain and heart do not get enough glucose to function properly.
Joe is becoming more confused and uncoordinated. When he tries to get
up to leave the examination room, he stumbles and falls down. He is
semiconscious and breathing even more heavily. One of the aides says
he needs some orange juice, right away.
"That's just the wrong thing to do," the doctor answers. "Don't you see his heavy breathing and smell the ketones on his breath? Give him the insulin, stat!"
Who is right?
The doctor is right − Joe’s plasma glucose is elevated, so he cannot have hypoglycemia.
Which of the following enzymes are important in the deactivation of cAMP and termination of signaling?
Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?
What allows a cell to respond to a hormone?
the presence of a specific hormone receptor
Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.
__________ is the situation when one hormone exaggerates the effects of another hormone at the target cell?
The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the thyroid, which has traditionally been called the master endocrine gland.
What is the name for the type of hormone, secreted by the pituitary that regulates other endocrine organs?
Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?
A blow to the head may cause diabetes insipidus by ______.
interfering with the normal transmission of ADH to the posterior pituitary via the axons of hypothalamic neurons
Acromegaly may be caused by all EXCEPT which of the following?
positive feedback by GH (growth hormone) on the anterior pituitary
Hyperprolactinemia may be caused by ______.
hyposecretion of dopamine
Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?
None of the listed responses is correct.
Which hormone aids in water resorption?
If a person’s parathyroids are responding properly to a drop in blood calcium, which of the following should result?
Less calcium is placed in the urine by the kidneys.
Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?
Hypocalcemia could be caused by the ______.
apoptosis of parathyroid cellsfailure of osteoclasts to respond to PTH (parathyroid hormone/parathormone)malfunction of the parathormone receptors in kidney tubule cells
Which letter represents the hormone that promotes a decrease in blood pressure and a loss of sodium and water in urine?
The letter D indicates atrial natriuretic peptide, which is released from the heart when high blood pressure is sensed. It causes more sodium (“natrium”) to be placed in the urine (“uretic”).
Which pancreatic hormone functions to raise blood glucose levels?