Test Review: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

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1

adenine

(biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA

2

amino acid

basic building block of protein

3

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

4

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

5

chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

6

codon

a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid

7

cytosine

Nitrogen base that pairs with guanine.

8

deoxyribose

five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

9

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

10

DNA Polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

11

double helix

two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA

12

enzyme

specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions

13

exon

sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures

14

gene/genome/genetic code

(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain

15

guanine

The base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA

16

helicase

an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands

17

histone

protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

18

hydrogen bond

the bond between the nitrogenous bases of DNA

19

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

20

lagging / leading strands

DNA strand that must be synthesized during replication in the direction opposite from the replication fork

21

ligase

An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.

22

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

23

nitrogenous base

an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA

24

nucleic acid

an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

25

nucleosome

bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins

26

nucleotide

Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

27

Okazaki Fragments

Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.

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peptide bonds

Bonds between amino acids

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phosphodiester bond

Strong covalent bond holding the carbon-3 atom of one nucleotide (deoxyribose sugar) to the phosphate group of another nucleotide

30

polypeptide

A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

31

protein synthesis

the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA

32

purine

a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine

33

pyrimidine

a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil

34

replication

copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

35

ribose

a five-carbon sugar present in RNA

36

ribosome

small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein

37

RNA Polymerase

enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

38

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

39

semi-conservative

method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new

40

template

a model or standard for making comparisons

41

thymine

a base found in DNA (but not in RNA) and derived from pyrimidine

42

transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

43

translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

44

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

45

uracil

a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine