Exam 2 Flashcards


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1

Modern biological classification began with:

Carl Linnaeus.

2

Which of the following statements about Linnaeus is FALSE?

He developed a “shorthand” designation for each species consisting of a single word.

3

The binomial for poison ivy is Toxicodendron radicans. To what genus does this plant belong?

Toxicodendron

4

The binomial for the coast redwood is Sequoia sempervirens. What is the species name of this plant?

Sequoia sempervirens

5

Which of the following statements about the naming of species and varieties is FALSE?

The varieties of a species that includes the type specimen is named by repeating the specific epithet.

6

Which of the following lists the taxonomic categories in the correct hierarchy, from most to least inclusive, under kingdom?

Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

7

Cattleya is one genus in the Orchidaceaea, the orchid family. In this example:

Cattleya and Orchidaceae are taxa.

8

The term “phylum” is nomenclaturally equivalent to:

division.

9

The names of almost all plant families end in:

-aceae.

10

Phylogeny refers to the:

evolutionary history of an organism.

11

A natural classification system differs from an artificial classification system in that a natural classification system:

reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms.

12

When the members of a taxon are all descendents of a common single ancestral species, the taxon is said to be:

monophyletic.

13

When the members of a group have two or more ancestors, that group is said to be:

polyphyletic.

14

Biological features that have a common origin, even if they have a different function, are said to be:

homologous.

15

The wing of a bird and the wing of an insect are:

analogous but not homologous.

16

Synapomorphies are:

shared derived characters.

17

In a cladogram, groups that terminate in adjacent branches are called:

sister groups.

18

The rule of parsimony states that:

cladograms should be constructed in the least complicated way.

19

Which of the following statements concerning the use of molecular data in systematics is FALSE?

Molecular data concerning the amino acid sequences of proteins are the most widely used.

20

Neutral mutations:

can be used to determine changes occurring in homologous genes since lineages diverged.

21

If you analyze the neutral mutations from two groups and find there are few differences in their nucleotide sequences, you would logically conclude that the two groups:

diverged relatively recently from a common ancestor.

22

Which of the following statements concerning chloroplast DNA is FALSE?

It contains more nucleotides than the mitochondria.

23

Which of the following statements concerning the rcbL gene is FALSE?

It is a rapidly evolving gene.

24

The DNA barcode used for animals is _____, and for plants the DNA barcode is ______.

CO1; rbcL or matK

25

The three domains of organisms are the:

Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

26

The eukaryotes are divided into _____ supergroups.

7

27

According to the serial endosymbiotic theory, chloroplasts evolved from:

bacteria.

28

By definition, an endosymbiont is an organism that:

lives within another, dissimilar organism.

29

Which of the following best indicates the correct sequence in which the evolution of these organelles occurred?

lysosome, mitochondrion, chloroplast

30

The endomembrane system of plant cells most likely evolved from:

portions of the plasma membrane.

31

The nucleus of plant cells most likely evolved from:

portions of the plasma membrane.

32

In the Vorticella/Chlorella endosymbiosis:

Chlorella provides photosynthetic products for Vorticella.

33

In the course of evolution of eukaryotic cells, some mitochondrial DNA was transferred to:

the host cell’s nucleus.

34

In secondary endosymbiosis, a ______ is engulfed by a eukaryotic host.

cell containing a primary plastid

35

A eukaryotic, multicellular organism that absorbs its food belongs to the kingdom:

Fungi.

36

A multicellular organism that ingests its food belongs to the kingdom:

Animalia.

37

Water molds and slime molds are included in the _____ group.

protist

38

_____ are a paraphyletic group of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular, colonial or multicellular.

Protists

39

Multicellular eukaryotes that have an embryo during the sporophyte phase belong to the kingdom:

Plantae.

40

Which of the following describes zygotic meiosis?

The zygote is the only diploid cell in the life cycle.

41

Which of the following describes sporic meiosis?

It is characteristic of organisms having an alternation of generations.

42

The gametophyte:

occurs in organisms having sporic meiosis.

43

Life cycles in which the haploid and diploid forms are similar in external appearance are said to have ______ generations.

isomorphic

44

One clear evolutionary trend in the vascular plants is the increasing dominance of:

the sporophyte.

45

Systematics is the science of identifying, naming, and classifying organisms.

FALSE

46

In the name Lactuca biennis, “biennis” is called the specific epithet.

TRUE

47

A variety can be considered equivalent to a subspecies.

TRUE

48

Similar families are next grouped into an order.

TRUE

49

When classifying maize, the maize class contains more individuals than the maize family.

TRUE

50

In natural taxa, all members are descended from the same ancestral species.

TRUE

51

Polyphyletic taxa contain members descended from more than one ancestral line.

TRUE

52

Foliage leaves and floral parts are analogous, rather than homologous, structures.

FALSE

53

An outgroup is a group closely related to the study group but not a member of that group.

TRUE

54

A cladogram indicates which group gave rise to other groups.

FALSE

55

Chloroplast DNA is unique in that it lacks inverted repeats.

FALSE

56

DNA barcoding is used to identify plant species.

TRUE

57

The prokaryotic domains are the Bacteria and Archaea.

TRUE

58

The domain is the highest taxonomic category.

TRUE

59

Researchers now hypothesize that the protists belong to the Kingdom Protista.

FALSE

60

Taxonomically, a supergroup lies between a kingdom and a phylum.

FALSE

61

According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria evolved from an alpha-proteobacterium.

TRUE

62

According to the endosymbiotic theory, chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria.

TRUE

63

An example of secondary endosymbiosis is a eukaryotic host engulfing a cyanobacterial cell.

FALSE

64

Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.

FALSE

65

Viridiophytes is a clade containing the green algae, mosses, and vascular plants.

TRUE

66

The first eukaryotes were probably haploid, asexual organisms.

TRUE

67

Heteromorphic generations are characteristic of all organisms having an alternation of generations.

FALSE

68

Which of the following statements concerning the bryophytes is FALSE?

Some can grow in high-salinity salt water.

69

Bryophytes are a group of organisms at the transition between:

green algae and vascular plants.

70

Bryophytes share all of the following features with charophytes except:

the presence of archegonia.

71

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?

retention of the embryo within an antheridium

72

Which of the following statements about bryophytes is FALSE?

The cell walls of their water-conducting cells are lignified.

73

Which of the following statements about bryophytes is also FALSE?

They have rhizoids that absorb water and nutrients.

74

In bryophytes, rhizoids usually:

attach to the substrate

75

The evolutionary relatedness between green algae and bryophytes is indicated by the observation that green algae contain ______ plastid(s) per cell and the reproductive cells of many bryophytes contain ______ plastid(s) per cell.

1; 1

76

Which of the following statements about sexual reproduction in bryophytes is FALSE?

In the antheridium, the spermatogenous cells are “sterile.”

77

In bryophytes, fertilization takes places in the:

archegonium.

78

Matrotrophy refers to the:

nourishment of the zygote by the archegonium.

79

Which of the following statements concerning the transport of nutrients from the gametophyte to the embryo is FALSE?

Transport occurs via plasmodesmata.

80

The base of the bryophyte archegonium, called the ______, contains ______.

venter; a single egg

81

When the cells of the ________ disintegrate, they form a tube through which sperm move to the egg.

neck canal

82

The ________ is located between the sporophyte and gametophyte generations.

placenta

83

At maturity, the sporophyte of most bryophytes consists of the:

foot, seta, and capsule.

84

The ______ is embedded in the archegonium.

foot

85

Embryophytes are characterized by having:

a multicellular, matrotrophic embryo.

86

Which of the following statements about stomata is FALSE?

They occur in all bryophytes.

87

A major difference between the spore walls of bryophytes and charophytes is that the bryophyte spore walls contain:

sporopollenin.

88

Sporopollenin is found in _____ of the charophytes, in _____ of the bryophytes, and in ____ of the vascular plants.

zygotes; spores; spores

89

The two clades of liverworts are the _______ liverworts and the _______ liverworts.

complex thalloid; leafy liverworts and simple thalloid

90

Most liverworts develop close symbiotic associations with the:

glomeromycetes.

91

In contrast to the ventral portion, the dorsal portion of a thalloid liverwort:

contains chlorophyll.

92

______ is a liverwort that carries its gametangia on gametophores.

Marchantia

93

In Marchantia, the mature capsule contains:

spores and elaters only.

94

The function of elaters is to:

help disperse spores.

95

Leaves of leafy liverworts differ from those of mosses in that liverwort leaves:

are arranged in two rows with a third row of smaller leaves.

96

In the liverworts, an androecium is a:

short side branch bearing antheridia.

97

A perianth is characteristically found in the:

leafy liverworts.

98

Which of the following is NOT a group of mosses of phylum Bryophyta?

Club mosses

99

Peat mosses belong to the phylum ______, class ______.

Bryophyta; Sphagnidae

100

The genus ______ is characterized by capsules raised on a pseudopodium.

Sphagnum

101

The protonema of Sphagnum consists of ______ of cells.

a one-layer-thick plate

102

Hyaline cells are found in the _____ of ______.

leaves; Sphagnum

103

The granite mosses belong to the phylum ______, class ______.

Bryophyta; Andreaeidae

104

The protonema of Andreaea consists of ______ of cells.

two or more rows

105

The “true mosses” belong to the phylum ______, class ______.

Bryophyta; Bryidae

106

Hadrom contains:

water-conducting cells.

107

What is the function of hydroids?

conducting water

108

A peristome is a capsular structure characteristic of members of the phylum ______, class ______.

Bryophyta; Bryidae

109

Which of the following statements concerning hornworts is FALSE?

The sporophyte is covered with a cuticle but lacks stomata.

110

Anthoceros is an example of a:

hornwort.

111

Bryophytes are transitional between the charophycean algae and vascular plants.

TRUE

112

Bryophytes differ from charophytes in that bryophytes have asymmetrical motile cells.

FALSE

113

Both bryophytes and charophytes retain their multicellular embryos within the female gametophyte.

FALSE

114

Bryophytes were the first extant plant group to diverge from a monophyletic plant lineage.

TRUE

115

Bryophytes produce preprophase bands similar to those found in charophycean algae.

FALSE

116

In bryophytes, sperm must swim through water to reach the egg.

TRUE

117

The sporophyte epidermis of mosses contains stomata that resemble the stomata of vascular plants.

TRUE

118

When bryophyte spores germinate, they first form juvenile developmental stages called rhizoids.

FALSE

119

The upper portion of a thalloid liverwort is thinner than the lower portion.

TRUE

120

The sporophyte of Riccia is simpler in structure than the sporophyte of Marchantia.

TRUE

121

Antheridiophores and archegoniophores are distinctive features of Riccia and Ricciocarpus.

FALSE

122

Gemmae and gemma cups are directly involved in sexual reproduction.

FALSE

123

Ambuchanania and Sphagnum are the two genera in the class Sphagnidae.

TRUE

124

The protonema of Sphagnum is similar to thallus of Coleochaete.

TRUE

125

Hyaline cells are living cells with ringlike and spiral wall thickenings.

FALSE

126

Peat mosses normally release hydroxide ions, thereby raising the pH of their environment.

FALSE

127

Leptoids are somewhat similar to a type of food-conducting cells in vascular plants.

TRUE

128

In the Bryidae, gametophytes are borne on the sporophytes.

FALSE

129

The “cushiony” growth habit is characteristic of epiphytic mosses.

FALSE

130

The sporophytes of mosses are commonly associated with cyanobacteria.

TRUE

131

Despite a superficial resemblance between their gametophytes, hornworts and thallose liverworts are only distantly related.

TRUE

132

Some hornwort species form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

TRUE

133

The sporophyte of Anthoceros lacks a seta.

TRUE

134

As long as conditions are favorable, the hornwort sporophyte continues to elongate due to the activity of an apical meristem.

FALSE

135

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?

dominant gametophytes

136

In the evolution of vascular plants, there is a trend toward the:

increased protection of the gametophyte by the sporophyte.

137

The main tissue systems of the vascular plant are the ______ systems.

dermal, vascular, and ground

138

Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?

It primarily leads to thickening of the plant body.

139

The cork cambium is a(n) ______ meristem that produces________.

lateral; periderm

140

The conducting cells of the phloem are called:

sieve elements.

141

Tracheids differ from vessel elements in that tracheids:

are less-specialized cells.

142

What do ALL steles have in common?

primary xylem and primary phloem

143

The siphonostele of ferns:

has leaf gaps.

144

Microphylls differ from megaphylls in that microphylls:

are associated with protosteles.

145

Which sequence of events most likely describes the evolution of megaphylls?

Dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation, webbing

146

Which of the following statements about reproduction in vascular plants is FALSE?

The gametophyte is structurally more complex than the sporophyte.

147

In ferns, antheridiogens induce antheridia in _______ gametophytes.

smaller, less mature

148

Heterospory differs from homospory in that heterospory involves:

gametophytes with endosporic development.

149

Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend in the vascular plants?

Increased prominence of antheridia and archegonia

150

The four major groups of vascular plants are:

I. monilophytes, lycophytes, and progymnosperms

II. flowering plants

III. rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes

IV. gymnosperms

Which of the following is the correct sequence—from earliest to most recent—of the time period in which they were dominant on Earth?

III, I, IV, II

151

Which of the following statements about the phylum Rhyniophyta is FALSE?

They were differentiated into stems, roots, and leaves.

152

Cooksonia, a member of the phylum ______, is the oldest known ______.

Rhyniophyta; vascular plant

153

The Zosterophyllophyta differ from the Rhyniophyta in that the Zosterophyllophyta:

produced lateral sporangia.

154

Members of the phylum ______ probably evolved directly from the rhyniophytes and most likely are the ancestors of the ferns and progymnosperms.

Trimerophytophyta

155

Which of the following statements about sporophylls in the club mosses is FALSE?

They are borne on the gametophyte.

156

In the club moss life cycle:

a gametophyte may produce a series of sporophytes.

157

Lycopodium differs from Selaginella and Isoetes in that Lycopodium:

lacks ligules.

158

In the Selaginella life cycle, the archegonia:

protrude through a rupture in the megaspore wall.

159

Which of the following statements about quillworts is FALSE?

They have a short, fleshy above-ground stem.

160

Which of the following is NOT one of the major lineages of the Monilophyta?

Zosterophyllopsida

161

The common name “fern” refers to which of the following groups.

Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Polypodiopsida only

162

In contrast to a eusporangium, a leptosporangium:

arises from a single initial cell.

163

The innermost wall layer of a eusporangium is called the:

tapetum.

164

The annulus is most directly involved in:

discharging spores.

165

______ is a genus of phylum Monilophyta, order Ophioglossales.

Botrychium

166

Psilotum is a _______ fern belonging to the order _______.

eusporangiate; Psilotales.

167

Who am I? I am a eusporangiate fern belonging to the class Psilotopsida that has tiny leaves but no roots.

Tmesipteris

168

A eusporangiate fern with a leaf having two parts—a vegetative portion and a fertile portion—belongs to the:

genus Ophioglossum.

169

A rachis is a(n):

extension of the petiole.

170

The indusium of Polypodiopsida is a:

leaf outgrowth covering a sorus.

171

In a typical member of Polypodiopsida, the:

antheridia and archegonia form on the prothallus.

172

The prothallus of Polypodiopsida is a(n):

heart-shaped gametophyte.

173

Trichomanes speciosum is an example of a fern:

lacking a sporophyte stage.

174

The Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae differ from the other families of ferns in that the Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae:

are heterosporous.

175

An example of a water fern that produces bean-shaped sporocarps is:

Marsilea.

176

______ is a water fern that bears sporangia on submerged, rootlike leaves.

Salvinia

177

Carinal canals and conspicuously jointed stems are characteristic of the:

horsetails.

178

Which of the following statements about the Equisetum life cycle is FALSE?

Spore dispersal is facilitated by elaters similar to those of Marchantia.

179

The great height reached by some vascular plants was made possible by the evolution of the ability to synthesize lignin.

TRUE

180

The vascular tissue system is embedded in the ground tissue system.

TRUE

181

The vertical growth of the plant is an example of primary growth.

TRUE

182

Tracheary elements are the conducting cells of the xylem.

TRUE

183

Tracheids most likely evolved from vessel elements.

FALSE

184

A eustele has a pith, but a siphonostele does not.

FALSE

185

Microphylls are associated with stems possessing protosteles.

TRUE

186

The blade of a megaphyll contains only a single vein.

FALSE

187

Antheridiogens are water-soluble substances that affect sex expression.

TRUE

188

In angiosperms and most gymnosperms, the entire megagametophyte is the pollen grain.

FALSE

189

Three of the phyla of seedless vascular plants—Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, and Trimerophytophyta—had become extinct by the end of the Devonian period.

TRUE

190

The zosterophyllophytes were most likely the ancestors of the lycophytes.

TRUE

191

In Lycopodium, the sporangia are borne on microsporophylls and megasporophylls.

FALSE

192

Selaginella is homosporous, with bisexual gametophytes.

FALSE

193

Each leaf of Isoetes is a potential sporophyll, capable of bearing either megasporangia or microsporangia.

TRUE

194

The thick trunk of tree ferns is due to the functioning of a vascular cambium.

FALSE

195

In a eusporangium, the initials divide by the formation of walls parallel to the surface.

TRUE

196

The tapetum of a leptosporangium consists of two layers.

TRUE

197

Psilotum has tiny leaves but lacks roots.

TRUE

198

Circinate vernation is a type of branching pattern in a megaphyll.

FALSE

199

Sporocarps are produced by members of the genus Marsilea.

TRUE

200

Horsetails are homosporous plants having jointed stems.

TRUE

201

In Equisetum, strobili are clustered into sporangiophores.

FALSE

202

A seed is composed of a(n) ______ and ______.

ovule; embryo

203

In seed plants, the ______ is called the nucellus.

megasporangium

204

Which of the following was NOT a step in the evolution of the ovule?

Production of only four megaspore mother cells per megasporangium

205

A micropyle is a(n):

opening in an integument.

206

With the evolution of the ovule, the unit of dispersal shifted from the megaspore to the:

seed.

207

The fossil record indicates that the integument evolved through a gradual:

fusion of integumentary lobes.

208

Just before fertilization, a gymnosperm ovule contains:

archegonia.

209

After fertilization, the integuments develop into the:

seed coat.

210

Which of the following is NOT a gymnosperm phylum?

Anthophyta

211

Seed plants evolved most directly from:

progymnosperms.

212

The progymnosperms had characteristics intermediate between those of the ______ and those of the ______.

seedless vascular trimerophytes; seed plants

213

Which of the following questions concerning the progymnosperms is FALSE?

Most were heterosporous.

214

Which extinct gymnosperms resembled modern cycads?

Bennettitales

215

Which of the following statements about gymnosperms is FALSE?

The male gametophyte produces several antheridia.

216

In gymnosperms, pollination occurs usually by:

wind.

217

______ produce nonmotile sperm.

Conifers and gnetophytes

218

In which of the following groups is the pollen tube haustorial?

Cycads and Ginkgo

219

In which gymnosperms do multiflagellated sperm swim to an archegonium?

Ginkgo and cycads

220

Polyembryony is common in gymnosperms because a(n):

megagametophyte produces several archegonia.

221

Which of the following statements about conifers is FALSE?

Their leaves have humidity-resistant features.

222

Which of the following statements about pine leaves is FALSE?

They are arranged in indeterminate bundles called fascicles.

223

The longest-lived tree is:

bristlecone pine.

224

In the pine life cycle, meiosis occurs in:

microsporocytes.

225

The daughter cells produced by a microsporocyte are:

microspores.

226

In pines, the immature male gametophyte consists of:

two prothallial cells, one generative cell, and one tube cell.

227

The seed-scale complex of an ovulate cone consists of:

an ovuliferous scale, two ovules, and one bract.

228

In pines, a megaspore mother cell divides to give rise to four ______, of which ______ disintegrate(s).

megaspores; three

229

Which of the following statements concerning pollination drops is FALSE?

They prevent pollen grains from contacting the nucellus.

230

In pines, the generative cell of the male gametophyte divides to produce:

one sterile cell and one spermatogenous cell.

231

In pines, the mature male gametophyte consists of:

two prothallial cells, one tube cell, one sterile cell, and two sperm.

232

Which of the following statements about the embryogeny of pine is FALSE?

Three types of polyembryony occur in most species.

233

In a conifer seed, the three different generations are represented by the:

seed coat, embryo, and food supply.

234

Which of the following statements about pine seeds is FALSE?

They are often shed from the cones during the first year following pollination.

235

In the ______, ovules are solitary and surrounded by an aril.

yews

236

The tallest living plant is:

Sequoiadendron semperiverens.

237

_________ is a conifer regarded as a “living fossil.”

Metasequoia

238

Palmlike gymnosperms belong to the phylum:

Cycadophyta.

239

Which of the following gymnosperms is a cycad native to the United States?

Zamia

240

Which phylum is characterized by having coralloid roots?

Cycadophyta

241

Which of the following statements about cycads is FALSE?

They produce nonflagellated sperm.

242

Gymnosperms having fan-shaped deciduous leaves belong to the phylum:

Ginkgophyta.

243

Members of the phylum ______ harbor a green alga that exists in a “precursor” state, having neither discernible nuclei nor mitochondria.

Ginkgophyta

244

______ is a gnetophyte characterized by two strap-shaped leaves growing from a massive woody disk.

Welwitschia

245

The gymnosperms most closely resembling angiosperms belong to the phylum:

Gnetophyta.

246

All seed plants are heterosporous.

TRUE

247

A seed develops into an ovule.

FALSE

248

A micropyle is the opening in a microsporangium.

FALSE

249

The progymnosperms were unique among the woody plants of the Devonian period in producing secondary phloem.

TRUE

250

Seeds are thought to have evolved before wood.

FALSE

251

The bifacial vascular cambium evolved first in the progymnosperms.

TRUE

252

The Bennettitales is an extinct group of gymnosperms.

TRUE

253

The pollen grain is a partly developed megagametophyte.

FALSE

254

The microgametophytes of Gymnosperms usually produce at least one antheridium.

FALSE

255

Each gymnosperm ovule usually produces several archegonia.

TRUE

256

The pollen tube originally developed as a structure that permitted the male gametophyte to absorb nutrients during sperm formation.

TRUE

257

The tallest vascular plant belongs to the phylum Coniferophyta.

TRUE

258

In pines, materials are conducted between the mesophyll and the vascular bundles via transfusion tissue.

TRUE

259

Microspore mother cells divide by mitosis, producing microsporocytes.

FALSE

260

In Pinus, the four-celled pollen grain consists of one prothallial cell, two generative cells, and one tube cell.

FALSE

261

In gymnosperms, the ovules abort about 95 percent of the time.

TRUE

262

In Pinus, when the generative cell divides it produces one sterile cell and two spermatogenous cells.

FALSE

263

In pine, the mature microgametophyte is the germinated pollen grain.

TRUE

264

In conifer seeds, the food supply is diploid.

FALSE

265

In conifer seeds, the food supply is diploid.

TRUE

266

Cyanobacteria typically inhabit coralloid roots.

TRUE

267

In cycads and Ginkgo, male and female gametophytes are produced on the same plant.

FALSE

268

The exposed part of Welwitschia consists of a concave disc that produces only two strap-shaped leaves.

TRUE

269

Gnetum and Welwitschia, but not Ephedra, resemble angiosperms in lacking archegonia.

TRUE

270

Which of the following statements about the shoot and root apical meristems is FALSE?

They generate cells that give rise to roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.

271

In contrast to derivatives, initials:

give rise to more initials and derivatives.

272

Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?

It results in the thickening of the stem and root.

273

When a botanist uses the word “indeterminate,” she is referring to the:

unlimited growth of the apical meristems.

274

Most of the growth of a plant body is the result of:

cell enlargement.

275

Morphogenesis refers to:

the acquisition of a particular shape.

276

The developmental fate of a plant cell is determined mostly by:

its final position.

277

____________ refers to the phenomenon whereby a cell becomes increasingly committed to a course of development that weakens its ability to resume growth.

Determination

278

The three tissue systems of vascular plants are:

the dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems.

279

From which primary meristem does sclerenchyma develop?

ground meristem

280

In a eudicot stem, ______ is the ground tissue external to the system of vascular strands and ______ is the ground tissue internal to these strands.

cortex; pith

281

______ is a simple tissue, and ______ is a complex tissue.

Collenchyma; xylem

282

The rays found in secondary vascular tissue consist of:

parenchyma cells.

283

Which of the following statements about parenchyma cells is FALSE?

They lack secondary walls.

284

Cells that are totipotent, play an important role in wound healing, and initiate adventitious structures are:

parenchyma cells.

285

The role of transfer cells is to:

facilitate the movement of solutes over short distances.

286

______ tissue is composed of cells having unevenly thickened primary walls.

Collenchyma

287

______ is the typical supporting tissue of growing stems, leaves, and floral parts.

Collenchyma

288

Which of the following statements about sclerenchyma cells is FALSE?

They strengthen plant parts that are still elongating.

289

The two types of ______ cells are fibers and sclereids.

sclerenchyma

290

______ are types of tracheary elements.

Tracheids and xylem parenchyma

291

Perforation plates are characteristic of the ______ of ______.

vessel elements; angiosperms

292

One role of pit membranes in tracheids is to:

trap air bubbles.

293

By definition, metaxylem is ______ protoxylem.

formed after

294

An example of programmed cell death is the differentiation of:

tracheary elements.

295

In vascular plants, food is conducted through:

sieve cells and sieve-tube elements only.

296

Which of the following statements about sieve cells is FALSE?

They are interconnected to form sieve tubes.

297

Callose is a ______ deposited in the ______ of sieve elements.

carbohydrate; pores

298

A cell that is alive at maturity but lacks a nucleus and certain organelles is the:

sieve element.

299

During the differentiation of sieve-tube elements, which of the following does not disintegrate?

endoplasmic reticulum

300

Which of the following statements about P-protein is FALSE?

In undisturbed cells, it plugs the sieve-plate pores.

301

Which of the following statements about forisomes is FALSE?

They seal the sieve-plate pores in undisturbed sieve tubes.

302

The parenchyma cells that are developmentally related to the ______ of angiosperms are called ______.

sieve-tube elements; companion cells

303

The _____ is thought to supply the sieve-tube element with essential molecules.

companion cell

304

Albuminous cells are thought to have the same function as:

companion cells.

305

Which of the following statements concerning the epidermis is FALSE?

Stomata are epidermal cells.

306

Stomata are the ______ between ______.

pores; guard cells

307

A subsidiary cell is most closely associated with which of the following?

guard cells

308

Which of the following is NOT a function of trichomes?

providing structural support

309

Which of the following is NOT part of the periderm?

epidermis

310

The cork cambium produces ______ on its outer surface and ______ on its inner surface.

cork; phelloderm

311

Primary growth refers to growth of the embryo; secondary growth refers to growth of the seedling.

FALSE

312

Developmental plasticity refers to the sum total of events that progressively form a plant’s body.

FALSE

313

The increase in the size of most plants results more from cell division than from cell enlargement.

FALSE

314

The fate of a plant cell is determined solely by the genes in its chromosomes.

FALSE

315

The ability of a leaf cell to develop in response to light is an example of competency.

TRUE

316

In general, vascular tissues are embedded within ground tissue, and the dermal tissue forms a surrounding layer.

TRUE

317

In the stem of a eudicot, cortex is the tissue internal to the vascular strands.

FALSE

318

An example of a simple tissue is xylem.

FALSE

319

Parenchyma cells are usually dead at maturity.

FALSE

320

Parenchyma cells are totipotent.

TRUE

321

Parenchyma can store water.

TRUE

322

Collenchyma is composed of elongated cells that have unevenly thickened primary walls.

TRUE

323

Hemp, jute, and flax are composed of sclerenchyma cells.

TRUE

324

Sclereids are sclerenchyma cells that are generally long and slender.

FALSE

325

Vessel elements have perforation plates, but tracheids do not.

TRUE

326

Tracheids are tracheary elements found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms.

FALSE

327

Obstruction of water flow by air bubbles is more likely to occur in vessel elements than in tracheids.

TRUE

328

Sieve-tube elements lack sieve plates.

FALSE

329

Unlike wound callose, definitive callose is deposited at the sieve areas and sieve plates of senescing sieve elements.

TRUE

330

Sieve elements must be living in order to transport food.

TRUE

331

Forisomes can change from a resting stage to a dispersed stage.

TRUE

332

A companion cell and its associated sieve-tube element are derived from the same mother cell.

TRUE

333

The walls of epidermal cells on the aerial parts of the plant are covered with a waxy cuticle.

TRUE

334

By regulating stomata, guard cells control the movement of gases into and out of the plant.

TRUE

335

An example of a trichome is a root hair.

TRUE

336

The epidermis replaces the periderm in stems and roots undergoing secondary growth.

FALSE

337

The phellem produces both cork and phelloderm.

FALSE