Modern biological classification began with:
Which of the following statements about Linnaeus is FALSE?
He developed a “shorthand” designation for each species consisting of a single word.
The binomial for poison ivy is Toxicodendron radicans. To what genus does this plant belong?
The binomial for the coast redwood is Sequoia sempervirens. What is the species name of this plant?
Which of the following statements about the naming of species and varieties is FALSE?
The varieties of a species that includes the type specimen is named by repeating the specific epithet.
Which of the following lists the taxonomic categories in the correct hierarchy, from most to least inclusive, under kingdom?
Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Cattleya is one genus in the Orchidaceaea, the orchid family. In this example:
Cattleya and Orchidaceae are taxa.
The term “phylum” is nomenclaturally equivalent to:
The names of almost all plant families end in:
Phylogeny refers to the:
evolutionary history of an organism.
A natural classification system differs from an artificial classification system in that a natural classification system:
reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
When the members of a taxon are all descendents of a common single ancestral species, the taxon is said to be:
When the members of a group have two or more ancestors, that group is said to be:
Biological features that have a common origin, even if they have a different function, are said to be:
The wing of a bird and the wing of an insect are:
analogous but not homologous.
shared derived characters.
In a cladogram, groups that terminate in adjacent branches are called:
The rule of parsimony states that:
cladograms should be constructed in the least complicated way.
Which of the following statements concerning the use of molecular data in systematics is FALSE?
Molecular data concerning the amino acid sequences of proteins are the most widely used.
can be used to determine changes occurring in homologous genes since lineages diverged.
If you analyze the neutral mutations from two groups and find there are few differences in their nucleotide sequences, you would logically conclude that the two groups:
diverged relatively recently from a common ancestor.
Which of the following statements concerning chloroplast DNA is FALSE?
It contains more nucleotides than the mitochondria.
Which of the following statements concerning the rcbL gene is FALSE?
It is a rapidly evolving gene.
The DNA barcode used for animals is _____, and for plants the DNA barcode is ______.
CO1; rbcL or matK
The three domains of organisms are the:
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
The eukaryotes are divided into _____ supergroups.
According to the serial endosymbiotic theory, chloroplasts evolved from:
By definition, an endosymbiont is an organism that:
lives within another, dissimilar organism.
Which of the following best indicates the correct sequence in which the evolution of these organelles occurred?
lysosome, mitochondrion, chloroplast
The endomembrane system of plant cells most likely evolved from:
portions of the plasma membrane.
The nucleus of plant cells most likely evolved from:
portions of the plasma membrane.
In the Vorticella/Chlorella endosymbiosis:
Chlorella provides photosynthetic products for Vorticella.
In the course of evolution of eukaryotic cells, some mitochondrial DNA was transferred to:
the host cell’s nucleus.
In secondary endosymbiosis, a ______ is engulfed by a eukaryotic host.
cell containing a primary plastid
A eukaryotic, multicellular organism that absorbs its food belongs to the kingdom:
A multicellular organism that ingests its food belongs to the kingdom:
Water molds and slime molds are included in the _____ group.
_____ are a paraphyletic group of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular, colonial or multicellular.
Multicellular eukaryotes that have an embryo during the sporophyte phase belong to the kingdom:
Which of the following describes zygotic meiosis?
The zygote is the only diploid cell in the life cycle.
Which of the following describes sporic meiosis?
It is characteristic of organisms having an alternation of generations.
occurs in organisms having sporic meiosis.
Life cycles in which the haploid and diploid forms are similar in external appearance are said to have ______ generations.
One clear evolutionary trend in the vascular plants is the increasing dominance of:
Systematics is the science of identifying, naming, and classifying organisms.
In the name Lactuca biennis, “biennis” is called the specific epithet.
A variety can be considered equivalent to a subspecies.
Similar families are next grouped into an order.
When classifying maize, the maize class contains more individuals than the maize family.
In natural taxa, all members are descended from the same ancestral species.
Polyphyletic taxa contain members descended from more than one ancestral line.
Foliage leaves and floral parts are analogous, rather than homologous, structures.
An outgroup is a group closely related to the study group but not a member of that group.
A cladogram indicates which group gave rise to other groups.
Chloroplast DNA is unique in that it lacks inverted repeats.
DNA barcoding is used to identify plant species.
The prokaryotic domains are the Bacteria and Archaea.
The domain is the highest taxonomic category.
Researchers now hypothesize that the protists belong to the Kingdom Protista.
Taxonomically, a supergroup lies between a kingdom and a phylum.
According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria evolved from an alpha-proteobacterium.
According to the endosymbiotic theory, chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria.
An example of secondary endosymbiosis is a eukaryotic host engulfing a cyanobacterial cell.
Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.
Viridiophytes is a clade containing the green algae, mosses, and vascular plants.
The first eukaryotes were probably haploid, asexual organisms.
Heteromorphic generations are characteristic of all organisms having an alternation of generations.
Which of the following statements concerning the bryophytes is FALSE?
Some can grow in high-salinity salt water.
Bryophytes are a group of organisms at the transition between:
green algae and vascular plants.
Bryophytes share all of the following features with charophytes except:
the presence of archegonia.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?
retention of the embryo within an antheridium
Which of the following statements about bryophytes is FALSE?
The cell walls of their water-conducting cells are lignified.
Which of the following statements about bryophytes is also FALSE?
They have rhizoids that absorb water and nutrients.
In bryophytes, rhizoids usually:
attach to the substrate
The evolutionary relatedness between green algae and bryophytes is indicated by the observation that green algae contain ______ plastid(s) per cell and the reproductive cells of many bryophytes contain ______ plastid(s) per cell.
Which of the following statements about sexual reproduction in bryophytes is FALSE?
In the antheridium, the spermatogenous cells are “sterile.”
In bryophytes, fertilization takes places in the:
Matrotrophy refers to the:
nourishment of the zygote by the archegonium.
Which of the following statements concerning the transport of nutrients from the gametophyte to the embryo is FALSE?
Transport occurs via plasmodesmata.
The base of the bryophyte archegonium, called the ______, contains ______.
venter; a single egg
When the cells of the ________ disintegrate, they form a tube through which sperm move to the egg.
The ________ is located between the sporophyte and gametophyte generations.
At maturity, the sporophyte of most bryophytes consists of the:
foot, seta, and capsule.
The ______ is embedded in the archegonium.
Embryophytes are characterized by having:
a multicellular, matrotrophic embryo.
Which of the following statements about stomata is FALSE?
They occur in all bryophytes.
A major difference between the spore walls of bryophytes and charophytes is that the bryophyte spore walls contain:
Sporopollenin is found in _____ of the charophytes, in _____ of the bryophytes, and in ____ of the vascular plants.
zygotes; spores; spores
The two clades of liverworts are the _______ liverworts and the _______ liverworts.
complex thalloid; leafy liverworts and simple thalloid
Most liverworts develop close symbiotic associations with the:
In contrast to the ventral portion, the dorsal portion of a thalloid liverwort:
______ is a liverwort that carries its gametangia on gametophores.
In Marchantia, the mature capsule contains:
spores and elaters only.
The function of elaters is to:
help disperse spores.
Leaves of leafy liverworts differ from those of mosses in that liverwort leaves:
are arranged in two rows with a third row of smaller leaves.
In the liverworts, an androecium is a:
short side branch bearing antheridia.
A perianth is characteristically found in the:
Which of the following is NOT a group of mosses of phylum Bryophyta?
Peat mosses belong to the phylum ______, class ______.
The genus ______ is characterized by capsules raised on a pseudopodium.
The protonema of Sphagnum consists of ______ of cells.
a one-layer-thick plate
Hyaline cells are found in the _____ of ______.
The granite mosses belong to the phylum ______, class ______.
The protonema of Andreaea consists of ______ of cells.
two or more rows
The “true mosses” belong to the phylum ______, class ______.
What is the function of hydroids?
A peristome is a capsular structure characteristic of members of the phylum ______, class ______.
Which of the following statements concerning hornworts is FALSE?
The sporophyte is covered with a cuticle but lacks stomata.
Anthoceros is an example of a:
Bryophytes are transitional between the charophycean algae and vascular plants.
Bryophytes differ from charophytes in that bryophytes have asymmetrical motile cells.
Both bryophytes and charophytes retain their multicellular embryos within the female gametophyte.
Bryophytes were the first extant plant group to diverge from a monophyletic plant lineage.
Bryophytes produce preprophase bands similar to those found in charophycean algae.
In bryophytes, sperm must swim through water to reach the egg.
The sporophyte epidermis of mosses contains stomata that resemble the stomata of vascular plants.
When bryophyte spores germinate, they first form juvenile developmental stages called rhizoids.
The upper portion of a thalloid liverwort is thinner than the lower portion.
The sporophyte of Riccia is simpler in structure than the sporophyte of Marchantia.
Antheridiophores and archegoniophores are distinctive features of Riccia and Ricciocarpus.
Gemmae and gemma cups are directly involved in sexual reproduction.
Ambuchanania and Sphagnum are the two genera in the class Sphagnidae.
The protonema of Sphagnum is similar to thallus of Coleochaete.
Hyaline cells are living cells with ringlike and spiral wall thickenings.
Peat mosses normally release hydroxide ions, thereby raising the pH of their environment.
Leptoids are somewhat similar to a type of food-conducting cells in vascular plants.
In the Bryidae, gametophytes are borne on the sporophytes.
The “cushiony” growth habit is characteristic of epiphytic mosses.
The sporophytes of mosses are commonly associated with cyanobacteria.
Despite a superficial resemblance between their gametophytes, hornworts and thallose liverworts are only distantly related.
Some hornwort species form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
The sporophyte of Anthoceros lacks a seta.
As long as conditions are favorable, the hornwort sporophyte continues to elongate due to the activity of an apical meristem.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?
In the evolution of vascular plants, there is a trend toward the:
increased protection of the gametophyte by the sporophyte.
The main tissue systems of the vascular plant are the ______ systems.
dermal, vascular, and ground
Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?
It primarily leads to thickening of the plant body.
The cork cambium is a(n) ______ meristem that produces________.
The conducting cells of the phloem are called:
Tracheids differ from vessel elements in that tracheids:
are less-specialized cells.
What do ALL steles have in common?
primary xylem and primary phloem
The siphonostele of ferns:
has leaf gaps.
Microphylls differ from megaphylls in that microphylls:
are associated with protosteles.
Which sequence of events most likely describes the evolution of megaphylls?
Dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation, webbing
Which of the following statements about reproduction in vascular plants is FALSE?
The gametophyte is structurally more complex than the sporophyte.
In ferns, antheridiogens induce antheridia in _______ gametophytes.
smaller, less mature
Heterospory differs from homospory in that heterospory involves:
gametophytes with endosporic development.
Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend in the vascular plants?
Increased prominence of antheridia and archegonia
The four major groups of vascular plants are:
I. monilophytes, lycophytes, and progymnosperms
II. flowering plants
III. rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes
Which of the following is the correct sequence—from earliest to most recent—of the time period in which they were dominant on Earth?
III, I, IV, II
Which of the following statements about the phylum Rhyniophyta is FALSE?
They were differentiated into stems, roots, and leaves.
Cooksonia, a member of the phylum ______, is the oldest known ______.
Rhyniophyta; vascular plant
The Zosterophyllophyta differ from the Rhyniophyta in that the Zosterophyllophyta:
produced lateral sporangia.
Members of the phylum ______ probably evolved directly from the rhyniophytes and most likely are the ancestors of the ferns and progymnosperms.
Which of the following statements about sporophylls in the club mosses is FALSE?
They are borne on the gametophyte.
In the club moss life cycle:
a gametophyte may produce a series of sporophytes.
Lycopodium differs from Selaginella and Isoetes in that Lycopodium:
In the Selaginella life cycle, the archegonia:
protrude through a rupture in the megaspore wall.
Which of the following statements about quillworts is FALSE?
They have a short, fleshy above-ground stem.
Which of the following is NOT one of the major lineages of the Monilophyta?
The common name “fern” refers to which of the following groups.
Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Polypodiopsida only
In contrast to a eusporangium, a leptosporangium:
arises from a single initial cell.
The innermost wall layer of a eusporangium is called the:
The annulus is most directly involved in:
______ is a genus of phylum Monilophyta, order Ophioglossales.
Psilotum is a _______ fern belonging to the order _______.
Who am I? I am a eusporangiate fern belonging to the class Psilotopsida that has tiny leaves but no roots.
A eusporangiate fern with a leaf having two parts—a vegetative portion and a fertile portion—belongs to the:
A rachis is a(n):
extension of the petiole.
The indusium of Polypodiopsida is a:
leaf outgrowth covering a sorus.
In a typical member of Polypodiopsida, the:
antheridia and archegonia form on the prothallus.
The prothallus of Polypodiopsida is a(n):
Trichomanes speciosum is an example of a fern:
lacking a sporophyte stage.
The Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae differ from the other families of ferns in that the Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae:
An example of a water fern that produces bean-shaped sporocarps is:
______ is a water fern that bears sporangia on submerged, rootlike leaves.
Carinal canals and conspicuously jointed stems are characteristic of the:
Which of the following statements about the Equisetum life cycle is FALSE?
Spore dispersal is facilitated by elaters similar to those of Marchantia.
The great height reached by some vascular plants was made possible by the evolution of the ability to synthesize lignin.
The vascular tissue system is embedded in the ground tissue system.
The vertical growth of the plant is an example of primary growth.
Tracheary elements are the conducting cells of the xylem.
Tracheids most likely evolved from vessel elements.
A eustele has a pith, but a siphonostele does not.
Microphylls are associated with stems possessing protosteles.
The blade of a megaphyll contains only a single vein.
Antheridiogens are water-soluble substances that affect sex expression.
In angiosperms and most gymnosperms, the entire megagametophyte is the pollen grain.
Three of the phyla of seedless vascular plants—Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, and Trimerophytophyta—had become extinct by the end of the Devonian period.
The zosterophyllophytes were most likely the ancestors of the lycophytes.
In Lycopodium, the sporangia are borne on microsporophylls and megasporophylls.
Selaginella is homosporous, with bisexual gametophytes.
Each leaf of Isoetes is a potential sporophyll, capable of bearing either megasporangia or microsporangia.
The thick trunk of tree ferns is due to the functioning of a vascular cambium.
In a eusporangium, the initials divide by the formation of walls parallel to the surface.
The tapetum of a leptosporangium consists of two layers.
Psilotum has tiny leaves but lacks roots.
Circinate vernation is a type of branching pattern in a megaphyll.
Sporocarps are produced by members of the genus Marsilea.
Horsetails are homosporous plants having jointed stems.
In Equisetum, strobili are clustered into sporangiophores.
A seed is composed of a(n) ______ and ______.
In seed plants, the ______ is called the nucellus.
Which of the following was NOT a step in the evolution of the ovule?
Production of only four megaspore mother cells per megasporangium
A micropyle is a(n):
opening in an integument.
With the evolution of the ovule, the unit of dispersal shifted from the megaspore to the:
The fossil record indicates that the integument evolved through a gradual:
fusion of integumentary lobes.
Just before fertilization, a gymnosperm ovule contains:
After fertilization, the integuments develop into the:
Which of the following is NOT a gymnosperm phylum?
Seed plants evolved most directly from:
The progymnosperms had characteristics intermediate between those of the ______ and those of the ______.
seedless vascular trimerophytes; seed plants
Which of the following questions concerning the progymnosperms is FALSE?
Most were heterosporous.
Which extinct gymnosperms resembled modern cycads?
Which of the following statements about gymnosperms is FALSE?
The male gametophyte produces several antheridia.
In gymnosperms, pollination occurs usually by:
______ produce nonmotile sperm.
Conifers and gnetophytes
In which of the following groups is the pollen tube haustorial?
Cycads and Ginkgo
In which gymnosperms do multiflagellated sperm swim to an archegonium?
Ginkgo and cycads
Polyembryony is common in gymnosperms because a(n):
megagametophyte produces several archegonia.
Which of the following statements about conifers is FALSE?
Their leaves have humidity-resistant features.
Which of the following statements about pine leaves is FALSE?
They are arranged in indeterminate bundles called fascicles.
The longest-lived tree is:
In the pine life cycle, meiosis occurs in:
The daughter cells produced by a microsporocyte are:
In pines, the immature male gametophyte consists of:
two prothallial cells, one generative cell, and one tube cell.
The seed-scale complex of an ovulate cone consists of:
an ovuliferous scale, two ovules, and one bract.
In pines, a megaspore mother cell divides to give rise to four ______, of which ______ disintegrate(s).
Which of the following statements concerning pollination drops is FALSE?
They prevent pollen grains from contacting the nucellus.
In pines, the generative cell of the male gametophyte divides to produce:
one sterile cell and one spermatogenous cell.
In pines, the mature male gametophyte consists of:
two prothallial cells, one tube cell, one sterile cell, and two sperm.
Which of the following statements about the embryogeny of pine is FALSE?
Three types of polyembryony occur in most species.
In a conifer seed, the three different generations are represented by the:
seed coat, embryo, and food supply.
Which of the following statements about pine seeds is FALSE?
They are often shed from the cones during the first year following pollination.
In the ______, ovules are solitary and surrounded by an aril.
The tallest living plant is:
_________ is a conifer regarded as a “living fossil.”
Palmlike gymnosperms belong to the phylum:
Which of the following gymnosperms is a cycad native to the United States?
Which phylum is characterized by having coralloid roots?
Which of the following statements about cycads is FALSE?
They produce nonflagellated sperm.
Gymnosperms having fan-shaped deciduous leaves belong to the phylum:
Members of the phylum ______ harbor a green alga that exists in a “precursor” state, having neither discernible nuclei nor mitochondria.
______ is a gnetophyte characterized by two strap-shaped leaves growing from a massive woody disk.
The gymnosperms most closely resembling angiosperms belong to the phylum:
All seed plants are heterosporous.
A seed develops into an ovule.
A micropyle is the opening in a microsporangium.
The progymnosperms were unique among the woody plants of the Devonian period in producing secondary phloem.
Seeds are thought to have evolved before wood.
The bifacial vascular cambium evolved first in the progymnosperms.
The Bennettitales is an extinct group of gymnosperms.
The pollen grain is a partly developed megagametophyte.
The microgametophytes of Gymnosperms usually produce at least one antheridium.
Each gymnosperm ovule usually produces several archegonia.
The pollen tube originally developed as a structure that permitted the male gametophyte to absorb nutrients during sperm formation.
The tallest vascular plant belongs to the phylum Coniferophyta.
In pines, materials are conducted between the mesophyll and the vascular bundles via transfusion tissue.
Microspore mother cells divide by mitosis, producing microsporocytes.
In Pinus, the four-celled pollen grain consists of one prothallial cell, two generative cells, and one tube cell.
In gymnosperms, the ovules abort about 95 percent of the time.
In Pinus, when the generative cell divides it produces one sterile cell and two spermatogenous cells.
In pine, the mature microgametophyte is the germinated pollen grain.
In conifer seeds, the food supply is diploid.
In conifer seeds, the food supply is diploid.
Cyanobacteria typically inhabit coralloid roots.
In cycads and Ginkgo, male and female gametophytes are produced on the same plant.
The exposed part of Welwitschia consists of a concave disc that produces only two strap-shaped leaves.
Gnetum and Welwitschia, but not Ephedra, resemble angiosperms in lacking archegonia.
Which of the following statements about the shoot and root apical meristems is FALSE?
They generate cells that give rise to roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
In contrast to derivatives, initials:
give rise to more initials and derivatives.
Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?
It results in the thickening of the stem and root.
When a botanist uses the word “indeterminate,” she is referring to the:
unlimited growth of the apical meristems.
Most of the growth of a plant body is the result of:
Morphogenesis refers to:
the acquisition of a particular shape.
The developmental fate of a plant cell is determined mostly by:
its final position.
____________ refers to the phenomenon whereby a cell becomes increasingly committed to a course of development that weakens its ability to resume growth.
The three tissue systems of vascular plants are:
the dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems.
From which primary meristem does sclerenchyma develop?
In a eudicot stem, ______ is the ground tissue external to the system of vascular strands and ______ is the ground tissue internal to these strands.
______ is a simple tissue, and ______ is a complex tissue.
The rays found in secondary vascular tissue consist of:
Which of the following statements about parenchyma cells is FALSE?
They lack secondary walls.
Cells that are totipotent, play an important role in wound healing, and initiate adventitious structures are:
The role of transfer cells is to:
facilitate the movement of solutes over short distances.
______ tissue is composed of cells having unevenly thickened primary walls.
______ is the typical supporting tissue of growing stems, leaves, and floral parts.
Which of the following statements about sclerenchyma cells is FALSE?
They strengthen plant parts that are still elongating.
The two types of ______ cells are fibers and sclereids.
______ are types of tracheary elements.
Tracheids and xylem parenchyma
Perforation plates are characteristic of the ______ of ______.
vessel elements; angiosperms
One role of pit membranes in tracheids is to:
trap air bubbles.
By definition, metaxylem is ______ protoxylem.
An example of programmed cell death is the differentiation of:
In vascular plants, food is conducted through:
sieve cells and sieve-tube elements only.
Which of the following statements about sieve cells is FALSE?
They are interconnected to form sieve tubes.
Callose is a ______ deposited in the ______ of sieve elements.
A cell that is alive at maturity but lacks a nucleus and certain organelles is the:
During the differentiation of sieve-tube elements, which of the following does not disintegrate?
Which of the following statements about P-protein is FALSE?
In undisturbed cells, it plugs the sieve-plate pores.
Which of the following statements about forisomes is FALSE?
They seal the sieve-plate pores in undisturbed sieve tubes.
The parenchyma cells that are developmentally related to the ______ of angiosperms are called ______.
sieve-tube elements; companion cells
The _____ is thought to supply the sieve-tube element with essential molecules.
Albuminous cells are thought to have the same function as:
Which of the following statements concerning the epidermis is FALSE?
Stomata are epidermal cells.
Stomata are the ______ between ______.
pores; guard cells
A subsidiary cell is most closely associated with which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT a function of trichomes?
providing structural support
Which of the following is NOT part of the periderm?
The cork cambium produces ______ on its outer surface and ______ on its inner surface.
Primary growth refers to growth of the embryo; secondary growth refers to growth of the seedling.
Developmental plasticity refers to the sum total of events that progressively form a plant’s body.
The increase in the size of most plants results more from cell division than from cell enlargement.
The fate of a plant cell is determined solely by the genes in its chromosomes.
The ability of a leaf cell to develop in response to light is an example of competency.
In general, vascular tissues are embedded within ground tissue, and the dermal tissue forms a surrounding layer.
In the stem of a eudicot, cortex is the tissue internal to the vascular strands.
An example of a simple tissue is xylem.
Parenchyma cells are usually dead at maturity.
Parenchyma cells are totipotent.
Parenchyma can store water.
Collenchyma is composed of elongated cells that have unevenly thickened primary walls.
Hemp, jute, and flax are composed of sclerenchyma cells.
Sclereids are sclerenchyma cells that are generally long and slender.
Vessel elements have perforation plates, but tracheids do not.
Tracheids are tracheary elements found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms.
Obstruction of water flow by air bubbles is more likely to occur in vessel elements than in tracheids.
Sieve-tube elements lack sieve plates.
Unlike wound callose, definitive callose is deposited at the sieve areas and sieve plates of senescing sieve elements.
Sieve elements must be living in order to transport food.
Forisomes can change from a resting stage to a dispersed stage.
A companion cell and its associated sieve-tube element are derived from the same mother cell.
The walls of epidermal cells on the aerial parts of the plant are covered with a waxy cuticle.
By regulating stomata, guard cells control the movement of gases into and out of the plant.
An example of a trichome is a root hair.
The epidermis replaces the periderm in stems and roots undergoing secondary growth.
The phellem produces both cork and phelloderm.