Which of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis?
microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus
A bacterium inhabits the human nasal cavity where it obtains
nutrients from secretions. It
neither harms nor benefits the host. The relationship is therefore a(n) ________ one.
A protozoan and its resident bacteria invade the body of a worm. The
bacteria release toxins
and exoenzymes that immobilize and digest the worm, and the protozoan and bacteria absorb the
nutrients produced. The relationship between the protozoan and the bacteria would best be
The fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is found in the lungs of most people
in low numbers, but in
immunocompromised people it overgrows, resulting in severe respiratory problems. The fungus
is best described as
both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen.
Chagas' disease is transmitted by a bug with mouthparts that
penetrate blood vessels. Which
type of exposure does this represent?
subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel.
The close contact between newborns and family members allows them to
with microbes that become established as their microbiota. (Choose the most accurate term.)
A person licks a needle before injecting a drug into a vein. The
person later develops a
bacterial infection of the blood. This is an example of
a member of the microbiota gaining access to an unusual location in the body.
Which of the following statements regarding the demonstration of the
etiology of disease is
The suspect agent must be the only potential pathogen present in disease cases.
Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby
Microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy.
Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to
treatment of a cancer patient with radiation
Which of the following is considered part of the resident microbiota
of the female
both Candida and Lactobacillus
Bacterial contaminants grow in food in a closed container. The food
is heated after the
container is opened, but a person develops food poisoning after eating it. The bacteria were
Among the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus are
hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these factors contribute(s) to the ability of S. aureus to
invade the body?
During which stage of disease should an infected person be considered contagious?
Which of the following is transmitted by the parenteral route?
Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?
cockroach transmission of Shigella
Vomiting is a common sign of food poisoning. The corresponding symptom would be
Which of the following might result in a nosocomial infection (HAI)?
a hospital aide forgetting to wash his or her hands before tending a patient
Diseases that are induced by modern medical procedures are referred
to as ________
The bacterium that causes tuberculosis can be expelled from the lungs
by a cough and remain
viable in the air for an hour or more. If a person inhales the bacteria from the air, what type of
transmission has occurred?
A person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and
develops valley fever as a
result. Valley fever is an example of a ________ disease.
In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel
H1N1 influenza ("swine
flu") in the United States. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over
40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents a(n) ________ disease.
The incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States
was 12.43/100,000 cases.
there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people
in the United States in
the year 2000.
A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to
lose the ability to
produce fimbriae and become less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen
the ability to adhere to cells of the body
Ten months after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there was a sharp
increase in the number of
cases of cholera. What was the most likely source of disease?
Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's postulates to study a disease?
What is the relationship between prevalence and incidence for an
acute disease like
The incidence and prevalence are essentially equal.
An example of direct contact transmission is
saliva exchanged during a kiss.
Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven
Haemophilus influenzae and the flu
The pattern of new cases reported in North America represented in
this graph is consistent with
Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?
incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at the
facility in the morning and the
other child attends the facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within
one day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?
Treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of
health care associated
Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is CORRECT?
Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M
A true pathogen may also be described as
Microbes known as transient microbiota are
organisms that remain in the body for a short time.
The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the
type of microbe that causes the disease.
Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as
microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.
A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What
measures might be taken by
public health agencies to stop the spread?
Educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.
Several days after a walk in the woods, Cheryl develops a localized
rash. It is not painful and
soon fades so she thinks nothing of it. Several months later she experiences increasing fatigue,
low-grade fever, and pain in the joints. These symptoms persist for months before she seeks
medical attention. This description is most consistent with a(n) ________ infection.
The condition called parasitism is characterized as a(n)
relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.
An axenic environment is one
that is free of microbes.
The condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as
an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.
The dots on the map represent reported cases of a disease. This
distribution is a(n) ________
Toxins that affect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract are _____.
The degree to which a microbe is able to cause disease is known as its _____.
Rubella, or three-day measles, passes through the _____ route to establish congenital infection of a fetus.
Nervous system function may be impaired by the action of _____.
The _____ period is the time between infection and the
of the first symptoms or signs of the disease.
Some of the bacteria in the human gut do not survive well outside of
that environment, and
produce vitamin K among other nutrients. This situation is an example of _____.
Lipid A is a(n) _____ that stimulates the body to release
that cause fever, inflammation, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, shock, and blood coagulation.
Persons with asymptomatic infections may be _____ of disease.
Spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of _____ contact transmission.
Biological ______ not only transmit pathogens, but also serve as
the manipulation of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogen's life cycle.
The bacterium that causes cholera is capable of living independently
in freshwater. As a
consequence, cholera epidemics primarily involve ______ reservoirs.
The study of the cause of disease is known as ______.
The hepatitis C virus normally establishes a _____ infection and may be asymptomatic for a decade.
The study of when and where diseases occur is known as
Virions attach to target host cell by means of _____.
Lyme disease is _____ among humans.