Micro Bio Chapter 14 Final Exam

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1

Which of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis?

microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus

2

A bacterium inhabits the human nasal cavity where it obtains nutrients from secretions. It
neither harms nor benefits the host. The relationship is therefore a(n) ________ one.

commensal

3

A protozoan and its resident bacteria invade the body of a worm. The bacteria release toxins
and exoenzymes that immobilize and digest the worm, and the protozoan and bacteria absorb the
nutrients produced. The relationship between the protozoan and the bacteria would best be
described as

mutualism.

4

The fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in
immunocompromised people it overgrows, resulting in severe respiratory problems. The fungus
is best described as

both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen.

5

Chagas' disease is transmitted by a bug with mouthparts that penetrate blood vessels. Which
type of exposure does this represent?

parenteral route

6

Symptoms are

subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel.

7

The close contact between newborns and family members allows them to become ________
with microbes that become established as their microbiota. (Choose the most accurate term.)

contaminated

8

A person licks a needle before injecting a drug into a vein. The person later develops a
bacterial infection of the blood. This is an example of

a member of the microbiota gaining access to an unusual location in the body.

9

Which of the following statements regarding the demonstration of the etiology of disease is
FALSE?

The suspect agent must be the only potential pathogen present in disease cases.

10

Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby acquires normal
microbiota?

Microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy.

11

Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic
pathogens?

treatment of a cancer patient with radiation

12

Which of the following is considered part of the resident microbiota of the female
reproductive system?

both Candida and Lactobacillus

13

Bacterial contaminants grow in food in a closed container. The food is heated after the
container is opened, but a person develops food poisoning after eating it. The bacteria were
producing

an exotoxin.

14

Among the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus are hemolysin, coagulase,
hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these factors contribute(s) to the ability of S. aureus to
invade the body?

hyaluronidase

15

During which stage of disease should an infected person be considered contagious?

all stages

16

Which of the following is transmitted by the parenteral route?

yellow fever

17

Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?

cockroach transmission of Shigella

18

Vomiting is a common sign of food poisoning. The corresponding symptom would be

nausea.

19

Which of the following might result in a nosocomial infection (HAI)?

a hospital aide forgetting to wash his or her hands before tending a patient

20

Diseases that are induced by modern medical procedures are referred to as ________
infections.

iatrogenic

21

The bacterium that causes tuberculosis can be expelled from the lungs by a cough and remain
viable in the air for an hour or more. If a person inhales the bacteria from the air, what type of
transmission has occurred?

airborne

22

A person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and develops valley fever as a
result. Valley fever is an example of a ________ disease.

noncommunicable

23

In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel H1N1 influenza ("swine
flu") in the United States. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over
40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents a(n) ________ disease.

epidemic

24

The incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States was 12.43/100,000 cases.
This means

there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the United States in
the year 2000.

25

A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to lose the ability to
produce fimbriae and become less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen
lost?

the ability to adhere to cells of the body

26

Ten months after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there was a sharp increase in the number of
cases of cholera. What was the most likely source of disease?

waterborne

27

Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's postulates to study a disease?

experimental

28

What is the relationship between prevalence and incidence for an acute disease like
influenza?

The incidence and prevalence are essentially equal.

29

An example of direct contact transmission is

saliva exchanged during a kiss.

30

Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven using Koch's
postulates?

Haemophilus influenzae and the flu

31

The pattern of new cases reported in North America represented in this graph is consistent with
________ transmission.

mosquito vector

32

Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?

incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence

33

Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at the facility in the morning and the
other child attends the facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within
one day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?

fomite transmission

34

Treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of health care associated
infection?

endogenous infection

35

Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is CORRECT?

Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M

36

A true pathogen may also be described as

highly virulent.

37

Microbes known as transient microbiota are

organisms that remain in the body for a short time.

38

The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the

type of microbe that causes the disease.

39

Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as

microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.

40

A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be taken by
public health agencies to stop the spread?

Educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.

41

Several days after a walk in the woods, Cheryl develops a localized rash. It is not painful and
soon fades so she thinks nothing of it. Several months later she experiences increasing fatigue,
low-grade fever, and pain in the joints. These symptoms persist for months before she seeks
medical attention. This description is most consistent with a(n) ________ infection.

chronic

42

The condition called parasitism is characterized as a(n)

relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.

43

An axenic environment is one

that is free of microbes.

44

The condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as

an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.

45

The dots on the map represent reported cases of a disease. This distribution is a(n) ________
pattern.

endemic

46

Toxins that affect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract are _____.

enterotoxins

47

The degree to which a microbe is able to cause disease is known as its _____.

virulence

48

Rubella, or three-day measles, passes through the _____ route to establish congenital infection of a fetus.

placenta

49

Nervous system function may be impaired by the action of _____.

neurotoxins

50

The _____ period is the time between infection and the occurrence
of the first symptoms or signs of the disease.

incubation

51

Some of the bacteria in the human gut do not survive well outside of that environment, and
produce vitamin K among other nutrients. This situation is an example of _____.

mutualism

52

Lipid A is a(n) _____ that stimulates the body to release chemicals
that cause fever, inflammation, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, shock, and blood coagulation.

endotoxin

53

Persons with asymptomatic infections may be _____ of disease.

reservoirs

54

Spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of _____ contact transmission.

indirect

55

Biological ______ not only transmit pathogens, but also serve as hosts for
the manipulation of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogen's life cycle.

vectors

56

The bacterium that causes cholera is capable of living independently in freshwater. As a
consequence, cholera epidemics primarily involve ______ reservoirs.

nonliving

57

The study of the cause of disease is known as ______.

etiology

58

The hepatitis C virus normally establishes a _____ infection and may be asymptomatic for a decade.

latent

59

The study of when and where diseases occur is known as
_____ epidemiology.

descriptive

60

Virions attach to target host cell by means of _____.

ligands

61

Lyme disease is _____ among humans.

noncommunicable