Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive Flashcards


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Anatomy and Physiology 1
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1

What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy?

Kinetic energy is energy in action, while potential energy is stored energy.

2

The three atoms shown differ in the number of ______.

neutrons

3

An element has an atomic number of 17 and a mass of 35. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does the element have?

17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons

4

What do these four elements have in common?

hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and sodium

They all have an incomplete valence electron shell.

5

After the transfer of the electron, sodium will form an ion with ______.

Between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom

a charge of +1

6

Which of the following accurately describes what is occurring in the illustrated reaction?

between a hydrogen and chlorine atom

A single covalent bond is formed between carbon and each of the four hydrogen atoms.

7

What explains the negative charge on the oxygen atom within the water molecule?

Oxygen atoms have a stronger pull on the electrons shared within a covalent bond formed between oxygen and hydrogen.

8

The chemical reaction shown at step C is an ______.

endergonic dehydration synthesis

9

The chloride ion (Cl-) indicated by the arrow is interacting most closely with which of the following?

a hydrogen atom within a water molecule

10

Kidneys play a major role in helping to maintain proper levels of Na+ and K+ ions in the blood. If the kidneys fail to function properly, one of the direct consequences would be_________.

impaired nerve impulse transmission

11

What is the classification of a solution with a pH of 8.3?

alkaline solution

12

All amino acids (such as the four represented in the figure) contain ______.

an amine group and a carboxyl group

13

Which of the following statements is true regarding the enzyme-catalyzed reaction (B) compared to the uncatalyzed reaction (A)?

Less energy input is required to start the reaction in the presence of enzyme.

14

Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body?

proteins

15

Which of the following is NOT considered a form of matter?

X rays

16

Which of the following best describes an isotope?

structurally variant atoms, which have the same number of protons and electrons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain

17

Which of the following is NOT a subatomic particle?

molecule

18

Which of the following best defines covalent bonds?

the bond formed when shared electrons occupy a single orbital common to both atoms within a molecule

19

Which particle is indicated by the arrow?

proton

20

Which of the following is NOT one of the three major types of chemical reactions?

hyperbolic

21

Which of the following is NOT a compound?

oxygen gas

22

If an oxygen atom were to form a chemical bond in which it gained two electrons, it would ______.

become more stable

23

How many hydrogen atoms will nitrogen bond with to form a stable molecule?

3

24

Based on the information in this figure, we can conclude that chlorine has an atomic number of ______.

17

25

Which of the following is an example of a decomposition reaction?

MgO2 → Mg + O2

26

Atomic number is equal to the number of neutrons in an atom's nucleus.

False

27

Which of the following is NOT a difference between a compound and a mixture?

Mixtures are homogeneous while compounds are heterogeneous.

28

Buffers help to stabilize blood pH.

True

29

Both molecule A and molecule B are classified as ______.

lipids

30

Suspensions may also be called emulsions.

False

31

The major function of RNA is to carry out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis.

True

32

ATP is an unstable, high-energy molecule that provides body cells with a form of energy that is immediately usable.

True

33

What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?

ATP

34

Foods are broken down into their building blocks by adding water. This would be an example of which characteristic of water?

Water acts as a reactant.

35

Water acts to dissolve molecules in the body. How does water dissolve the salt (NaCl) in your mouth from a salty pretzel?

Water acts as a solvent because the partial negative charge on the oxygen in water attracts sodium, while the partial positive charge on hydrogen attracts chloride. This results in the separation of sodium from chloride, thus breaking the ionic bond.

36

In plasma, a typical body fluid, protein floating around would be considered to be which of the following?

a solute, specifically both a colloid and an electrolyte

37

Electrolytes are charged particles called ions that are dissolved in body fluids. Which of the following ions would be considered a major anion in the body?

chloride

38

Which pH is more acidic, a pH of 3, a pH of 7, or a pH of 9?

pH of 3

39

Cortisol is a type of lipid hormone. Which type of lipid would cortisol be classified as?

steroid

40

Which four elements comprise approximately 96% of our body weight?

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

41

The atomic mass of the helium atom shown is ______.

4 amu

42

The three atoms shown differ in the number of ______.

neutrons

43

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic steps involved in enzyme activity?

The substrate absorbs chemical energy from the enzyme after binding to its active site.

44

This figure depicts the formation of a(n) ______.

ionic bond

45

What holds the sodium and chloride ions together in a chemical bond?

an electrical attraction between opposite charges

46

How many valence shell electrons does the element carbon have?

4

47

Which of the following accurately describes what is occurring in the illustrated reaction?

A single covalent bond is formed between carbon and each of the four hydrogen atoms.

48

What type of bond is formed between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and the hydrogen atom of another water molecule?

hydrogen bond

49

What are the two fundamental roles of DNA?

to provide the instructions for protein synthesis, and replicate itself before cell division

50

Water ________.

can form hydrogen bonds

51

Molecule A is a ______.

phospholipid

52

Which of the following molecular features is found in molecule A, but NOT in molecule B?

a polar group

53

Which of the following is a primary function of molecule B?

energy storage

54

Which type(s) of subatomic particles can be located within the nucleus of an atom?

protons and neutrons

55

Which subatomic particles contribute to an atom’s mass number but not its atomic number?

neutrons

56

An atom of oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 18. How many of each type of subatomic particle does it contain?

8 protons, 8 electrons, and 10 neutrons

57

The three atoms shown represent three unique __________.

Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium

elements

58

Which of these elements is most likely to be unstable and therefore radioactive?

tritium

59

The superscript preceding each hydrogen atomic symbol (H) represents which of the following?

the mass number of the corresponding atom

60

The three atoms shown represent different __________.

Hydrogen, Deuterium, Tritium

isotopes

61

Which parts of atoms can interact (react) to form chemical bonds?

valence electrons

62

Atoms of oxygen have a total of 8 electrons. Are these atoms stable, and why or why not?

No, because the atoms have only 6 valence electrons, but need 8 for stability.

63

Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. Are they likely to react with other atoms, and why or why not?

Yes, because they can become more stable by doing so.

64

Which of the following is not produced through chemical bonding?

atoms

65

What is an ion?

an atom that has either gained or lost electron(s)

66

When an ionic bond forms, which part(s) of the atoms are directly involved?

the outermost electrons

67

How do ions form ionic bonds?

Ions of opposite electrical charges are attracted to each other to balance the charges.

68

Calcium’s atomic number is 20. It forms ions with 18 electrons. What is the electrical charge of a calcium ion?

+2

69

In a covalent bond,

Atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.

70

Covalent bonds:

involve the sharing of one to three pairs of electrons.

71

Which of the following is true of polar covalent bonds?

The electrons are shared unequally.

72

A molecule of water (H2O) is formed by what type of bond?

polar covalent bonds

73

Formation of hydrogen bonds requires hydrogen atoms and what else?

polar covalent bonds

74

Which of the following correctly ranks the types of chemical bonds, in order, from strongest to weakest?

covalent, ionic, hydrogen

75

Which of the following distinguishes hydrogen bonds from covalent bonds?

Only hydrogen bonds can form between molecules.

76

Which of the following is not a result of hydrogen bonds?

Two hydrogen atoms join together to form a molecule of hydrogen gas.

77

Which of the following is FALSE?

The weight of matter remains constant wherever it is located.

78

In a solution, the solute is the substance present in the greatest amount.

False

79

Heterogeneous, will not settle.

Colloids

80

Heterogeneous, will not settle.

Suspensions

81

Heterogeneous, will not settle.

Solutions

82

Will not scatter light.

Solutions

83

What does CH4 mean?

There is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms.

84

Mixtures are combinations of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds.

True

85

Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction.

synthesis

86

ATP → ADP + Pi is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.

decomposition

87

Forming glycogen as energy storage in the liver is an example of ________.

anabolism

88

The pH scale __________.

is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

89

A weak base buffers an acid by completely dissociating and accepting all of the acid's H+.

False

90

Which response provides the best explanation as to why ionic compounds easily dissociate in water?

Its unusual polar arrangement allows more substances to dissolve in water than in any other chemical.

91

Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?

CH4

92

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________.

removal of a water molecule between each two units

93

Which of the following is a FALSE statement about carbohydrates?

The chemical composition of carbohydrates includes two oxygens and one hydrogen for every carbon present.

94

Which of the following is true about lipids?

Triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and one glycerol and are stable because they do not dissolve in water.

95

The presence of what group differentiates most amino acids from each other?

an R group

96

What is represented by the chemicals at A?

substrates

97

What is represented by the chemical at B?

protein

98

Which of these terms would best classify the enzyme represented in the figure?

synthesis

99

Which of the following is true of protein structure?

Secondary protein structures are caused by hydrogen bonding between adjacent amine and carboxyl groups.

100

The single most abundant protein in the body is ________.

collagen

101

The major function of DNA is to store the genetic instructions that are used during protein synthesis

True

102

The genetic information is coded in DNA by the ________.

sequence of the nucleotides

103

In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves ________.

to hold the molecular backbone together

104

Which of the following does not describe uses for the ATP molecule?

pigment structure

105

What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?

ATP

106

How many hydrogen atoms will a single carbon atom bond with to form a stable molecule?

four

107

One carbon atom can combine with two oxygen atoms to form carbon dioxide. Use the diagram to predict the type of bond that would be necessary to join the oxygens to the carbon to form a stable molecule.

two double bonds

108

After the transfer of the electron, sodium will form an ion with __________.

a charge of +1

109

Rank the chemical bonds from relatively weakest to strongest.

I. Ionic
II. Covalent
III. Hydrogen

III < I < II

110

Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell (outermost energy level)?

7

111

Except for elements 1 and 2, all other elements are stable with how many electrons in their outermost (valence) energy level?

8

112

Suppose the following compounds were all dissolved in separate beakers of water in the same manner as the salt in the figure. Which of the resulting solutions would NOT conduct electricity?

sucrose

113

Which of the following is formed once the ions in the salt crystal have completely dissociated from one another?

a solution

114

Blood loss due to a moderate hemorrhage has several adverse effects on patient wellbeing. Why would administering IV fluids alone not be sufficient to return a patient to health?

Oxygen-carrying red blood cells lost along with the fluid component must also be replaced.

115

Why can dehydration be such a life-threating event?

It significantly alters the ratio of body water (solvent) to dissolved substances (solutes), such as sodium ions.

116

A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis.

False