Addictive behaviors are most closely associated with activity in the ____
A) dopamine pathway
B) serotonin pathway
_____ refers to the process by which neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals into the synaptic cleft
B) actve transport
The point of connection between two communicating neurons is called
A) the axon hillock.
B) the dendrite.
C) the synapse.
D) the cell body.
E) the glia.
The operation of the sodium-potassium "pump" moves
A) sodium and potassium ions into the cell.
B) sodium and potassium ions out of the cell.
C) sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell.
D) sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.
E) sodium and potassium ions into the mitochondria.
In a neuron at rest, what cation is more abundant as a solute in the cytosol than it is in the interstitial fluid?
The central nervous system is lacking in animals that have
A) a complete gut.
B) bilateral symmetry.
C) radial symmetry.
D) a closed circulatory system.
E) excitable membranes.
An injury to the temporal lobe will most likely impair which sensation?
If an amphibian zygote is manipulated so that the first cleavage
plane fails to divide the gray crescent, then
A) the daughter cell with the entire gray crescent will die.
B) both daughter cells will develop normally because amphibians are totipotent at this stage.
C) only the daughter cell with the gray crescent will develop normally.
D) both daughter cells will develop abnormally.
E) both daughter cells will die immediately.
Based on the description of the experiment, which of the treatment would be considered a control treatment for s purpuratus sperm binding?
A) treatment A
B) treatment b
C) treatment c
D) treatment d
A cluster of neuronal cell bodies inside the central nervous system CNS constitutes a
The main functions of the basal ganglia include:
A) control of voluntary motor movements
B) experience increased heart regulating appetite
C) comprehend language
D) process visual images
Calculate the equilibrium potential for sodium. (Assume a temperature of 37 C).
A) +48.2 mV
B) 0.0 mV
C) -58.4 mV
D) -80.0 mV
Which of the following structures or regions is correctly paired with its function?
A) limbic system - motor control of speech
B) medulla oblongata - emotional memory
C) cerebellum - temperature regulation
D) corpus callosum - communication between the left and right cerebral cortices
The fastest possible conduction velocity of action potentials is
A) thin, non-myelinated neurons.
B) thin, myelinated neurons.
C) thick, non-myelinated neurons.
D) thick, myelinated neurons.
In a newly fertilized egg, the vitelline layer
A) lifts away from the egg and hardens to form a fertilization envelope
B) secretes hormones that enhance steroidogenesis by the ovary
C) reduces the loss of water from the egg and prevents desiccation
D) provides most of the nutrients used by the zygote.
The threshold potential of a membrane is the
A) lowest frequency of action potentials a neuron can produce
B) minimum hyperpolarization needed to prevent the occurrence of action potential
C) minimum depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels
D) peak amount of depolarization seen in an action potential
The membrane potential in which there is no net movement of an ion across the membrane is called that ion's _______
A) graded potential
B) threshold potential
C) equilibrium potential
D) action potential
Why do Na+ ions enter the cell when voltage-gated Na+ channels are opened in neurons?
A) because the Na+ concentration is much lower outside the cell than it is inside
B) because the Na+ ions are actively transported by the sodium-potassium pump into the cell
C) because the Na+ concentration is much higher outside the cell than it is inside, and the Na+ ions are attracted to the negatively charged interior.
D) because the concentration of Na+ is similar on both sides of the membrane
Which of the following body parts is represented by the largest area in the primary motor cortex?
A human blastomere is
A) an embryonic cell that is much smaller than the ovum.
B) an embryonic structure that includes a fluid-filled cavity.
C) that part of the acrosome that opens the egg's membrane.
D) a component of the zona pellucida.
E) a cell that contains a (degenerating) second polar body.
Acetylcholine released into the junction between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle binds to a sodium/potassium channel and opens it. This is an example of
A) a voltage-gated sodium channel.
B) a voltage-gated potassium channel.
C) a ligand-gated sodium channel.
D) a second-messenger-gated sodium channel.
E) a chemical that inhibits action potentials.
Thalidomide, now banned for use as a sedative in pregnancy, was used
in the early 1960s by many women in their first trimester of
pregnancy. Some of these women gave birth to children with arm and leg
deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced
A) early cleavage divisions.
B) determination of the polarity of the zygote.
C) differentiation of bone tissue.
Although the membrane of a "resting" neuron is highly
permeable to potassium ions, its membrane potential does not exactly
match the equilibrium potential for potassium because the neuronal
membrane is also
A) fully permeable to sodium ions.
B) slightly permeable to sodium ions.
C) fully permeable to calcium ions.
D) impermeable to sodium ions.
E) highly permeable to chloride ions.
Choose the correct match of glial cell type and function.
A) astrocytes - metabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness
B) oligodendrocytes - produce the myelin sheaths of myelinated neurons in the peripheral nervous system
C) microglia - produce the myelin sheaths of myelinated neurons in the central nervous system
D) radial glia - the source of immunoprotection against pathogens.
E) Schwann cells - provide nutritional support to non-myelinated neurons
Imagine you are resting comfortably on a sofa after dinner. This
could be described as a state with
A) increased activity in the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems.
B) decreased activity in the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems.
C) decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.
D) increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and decreased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.
E) increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, decreased activity in the parasympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the enteric nervous system.
The activity of acetylcholine in a synapse is terminated by
A) it's active transport across the presynaptic membrane.
B) its diffusion across the presynaptic membrane.
C) it's active transport across the postsynaptic membrane.
D) its diffusion across the postsynaptic membrane.
E) its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.
If excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are produced nearly simultaneously through two different synapses on the same postsynaptic neuron, the EPSPs can also add together creating ____
A) a temporal B) a spatial summation C) a tetanus D) the refractory state
If gastrulation was blocked by an environmental toxin, then
A) cleavage would not occur in the zygote.
B) embryonic germ layers would not form.
C) fertilization would be blocked.
D) the blastula would not be formed.
E) the blastopore would form above the gray crescent in the animal pole.
If you experimentally increase the concentration of Na+ outside a cell while maintaining other ion concentrations as they were, what would happen to the cell's membrane potential?
A) the membrane potential would become more negative
B) the membrane potential would become more positive
C) the membrane potential would be unaffected
D) the answer depends on the thermodynamic potential
The limbic system is involved with the regulation of ___
A) sleep and walking
B) maintaining posture
C) emotions and basic drives
D) motor coordination
All of you following are implicated in Alzheimer's disease except ___
A) mitochondrial function genes
B) altered tau proteins
C) B- amyloid
D) neurofibrillary tangles
Central pattern generators are neuronal circuit that when activated can produce rhythmic motor patterns such as walking, breathing, flying, and swimming in the absence of sensory or descending inputs that carry specific timing information. Where in the nervous system are these networks located
B) basal ganglia/medulla oblongata
C) spinal cord/brainstem
The outer to inner sequence of tissue layers in a post gastrulation vertebrate embryo is _____
A) endoderm ---> ectoderm ---> mesoderm
B) mesoderm ---> endoderm ---> ectoderm
C) ectoderm ---> mesderm ---> endoderm
D) ectoderm --> endoderm --> mesoderm
If a patient has an injury in the brainstem, which of the following would be observed?
A) auditory hallucinations
B) visual hallucinations
C) an inability to regulate body temperature
D) an inability to regulate heart functions
The suprachiasmatic nuclei are found in the
D) Broca's area
In which of the following organisms does holoblastic cleavage typically occur?
I) sea urchins II) humans III) birds IV) fish
A) both II and IV
B) both I and III
C) both I and II
D) I only
Bottlenose dolphins breathe air but can sleep in the ocean because ____.
A) they sleep for only 30 minutes at a time, which is the maximum interval they can cease breathing
B) they fill their swim bladder with air to keep their blowholes above the surface of the water while they sleep
C) they move to shallow water to sleep, so they do not need to swim to keep their blowholes above the surface of the water
D) they alternate which half of their brain is asleep and which half is awake.
Movement and balance are monitored the activity of neurons in the ___
D) medulla oblongata
The __ is one of the structures of the limbic system and is intimately involved in mediation fear response.
Where in the brain would you expect to find the thermostat that monitors and regulates our body temperature?
A) frontal lobe
D) brain stem
Which of the following correctly matches the extraembryonic membrane with its function?
A) allantois -- waste storage
B) amnion -- waste disposal
C) chorion -- nutrient storage
D) yolk sac -- gas exchange
When Phineas Gage had a metal rod driven into his frontal lobe, or when someone had frontal lobotomy, they would ____
A) lose their sense of balance
B) have greatly altered emotional responses
C) lose all short term memory
D) have greatly increased long term memory
Our understanding of mental illness has been most advanced by discoveries involving the ___
A) degree of convolutions in the brain's surface
B) sequence of developmental specialization
C) chemicals involved in brain communication
D) nature of the blood-brain barrier
Stem cell transplants may someday be used to treat Parkinson's disease. Researchers are hopeful that these cells would alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease by
A) preventing temporal lobe seizures
B) repairing sites of traumatic brain injury
C) replenishing missing ion channels
D) secreting the neurotransmitter dopamine
Even in the absence of sperm, metabolic activity in an egg can be artificially activated by ___
A) abnormally high levels of carbonic acid in the cytosol
B) abnormally low levels of extracellular oxygen
C) injection of calcium ions into the cytosol
D) depletion of its ATP supplies
Arousal and sleep are controlled by the part of the brain called the _____
B) medulla oblongata
D) reticular formation
Which division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has short pre-ganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers?
A) cranial - sacral
D) none of the above
For long-term potentiation to occur in the hippocampus ____
A) a presynaptic neuron must release more acetylcholine neurotransmitter into the synapse
B) NMDA receptors must be unblocked so that they can respond to glutamate
C) the postsynaptic cell responds to glutamate by opening AMPA receptors
D) the presynaptic cell must grow more axon terminals to synapse with the dendrites of the postsynaptic cell
The following steps refer to various stages in transmission at a chemical synapse:
1: neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane 2: calcium ions rush into neuron's cytoplasm3: an action potential depolarizes the membrane of the presynaptic axon terminal 4: the ligand-gated ion channels open 5: the synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft
Which sequence of events is correct
A) 1 --> 2 --> 3 --> 4 -->5
B) 2 -->3 --> 5 -->4 -->1
C) 3 --> 2 --> 5 --> 1 --> 4
D) 4 --> 3 --> 1 --> 2 --> 5
The membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for
potassium at the label
The membrane's permeability to sodium ions is at its maximum at label
The minimum graded depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated
sodium and potassium channels is indicated by the label
The cell is not hyperpolarized; however, repolarization is in
progress, as the sodium channels are closing or closed, and many
potassium channels have opened at label
The neuronal membrane is at its resting potential at label