Ch 7 & 9 SOC Flashcards

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Deviance is always considered a crime?



Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?

the jury


An average of _____ people in the United States fall victim to hate crimes each year?



Social control is:

The regulation and enforcement of norms.


The term deviance can be defined as:

A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.


Ally's father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally's experience?

Differential association theory


Strain theory:

Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals


What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?

A hate crime is based on a persons race, religion, or other characteristics


The term secondary deviance can be defined as:

When a person's self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.


In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves. Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a "problem" child. Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott's experience?

Labeling theory


The term crime can be defined as:

A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions


Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?

C. Wright Mills


Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:

Positive formal sanction


Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?

Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke dhring her comedy routine


Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a Ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?

Corporate crime


Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class?

Upper class is often defined as having control over one's life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one's own life.


Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage.



Hope is desperate for the new designer purse that she saw while window shopping at her local mall. She knew every girl in school would covet her bag and wish to be like her. When she walked in, she whipped out her credit card, and purchased the $5,000 bag. This kind of purchasing is called:

Conspicuous consumption


Whose work do conflict theorists rely on to help form their arguments surrounding social stratification?

Karl Marx


Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today?

The Industrial Revolution


Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa's hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of:



What is particularly unique about the United States middle class?

It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class.


Mohit spent his days combing through garbage in Mumbai, India with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Mohit is an example of someone living under:

caste system


Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that:

Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.*


GNI PPP, or gross national income divided by purchasing power parity, helps measure:

The standard of living in a country


Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:

Necessary; it challenged people's views.


Please match the sociologist to his theory:

Edwin Sutherland

Travis Hirschi

Robert Merton

Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay

Correct Response __1__
Differential association

Correct Response __4__
Cultural deviance theory

Correct Response __2__
Control theory

Correct Response __3__
Strain theory


What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility?

How much education you have.


Which factor is considered when evaluating someone's standard of living?





Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today?

The Industrial Revolution


In 2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________.

Downward mobility


A person's position in a country's social stratification is determined by:

Wealth, power, income, race, education


It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. His parents chose a bride for him whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as they did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________ marriage.



What is the most significant threat to the relatively high standard of living people are accustomed to in the United States?

The decline of the middle class