Chapter 5 Developmental Psychology Rehearse It!

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1

Which one of the following is NOT one of the three major issues that interest Developmental Psychologists

A)Nature / Nurture
B)Reflexes / Unlearned behaviors
C)Stability / Change
D)Continuity / Stages

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2

Body organs first begin to form and function during the period of the _____; within 6 months, during the period of the _____, the organs sufficiently functional to allow a chance of survival

A)zygote; embryo
B)zygote; fetus
C)embryo; fetus
D)placenta; fetus

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3

teratogens are chemicals that pass through the placenta’s screen and may harm an embryo or fetus. Which of the following is NOT a teratogen

A)oxygen
B)heroin
C)alcohol
D)nicotine

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4

Stroke a newborn’s cheek and the infant will root for a nipple. This illustrates

A)Reflex
B)Nurture
C)Differentiation
D)Continuity

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5

Maturation, the orderly sequence of biological growth, explaining why

A)Children with autism have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings
B)Most children have begun walking by about 112 months
C)Early experiences have no effect on brain tissue
D)Object permanence is present at birth

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6

Between ages 3 and 6, the human brain experiences the greatest growth in the _____ lobes, which we use for rational planning, and which continue developing at least into adolescents

A)Parietal
B)Temporal
C)Frontal
D)Occipital

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7

Which of the following is true of motor skill development?

A)It is determined solely by genetic factors
B)The sequence, but not the timing, is universal
C)The timing, but not the sequence is universal
D)It is determined purely on environmental factors

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8

During the preoperational stage, a young child’s thinking is

A)Abstract
B)Negative
C)Conservative
D)Egocentric

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9

Children acquire the mental operations necessary to understand conservation during the

A)Sensorimotor stage
B)Preoperational stage
C)Concrete operational stage
D)Formal operational stage

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10

Although Piaget’s stage theory continues to inform our understanding of children’s thinking, many researchers believe that

A)Piget’s “stages” begin earlier and development is more continuous than he realized
B)Children do not progress as rapidly as Piaget predicted
C)Few children really progress to the concrete operational stage
D)There is no way of testing much of Piaget’s theoretical work.

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11

Faced with a new babysitter, an 8-month-old infant often shows distress, a behavior referred to as

A)Conservation
B)Stranger anxiety
C)Imprinting
D)Maturation

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12

In a series of experiments, the Harlows found that monkeys raised with artificial mothers tended, when afraid, to cling to

A)The wire mother
B)The cloth mother
C)Whichever mother held the feeding bottle
D)Other infant monkeys

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13

From the very first weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristic emotional reactions, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easy going and relaxed. These differences are usually explained as differences in

A)Attachment
B)Imprinting
C)Temperament
D)Parental responsiveness

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14

Adolescence is marked by the onset of

A)An identity crisis
B)Puberty
C)Separation anxiety
D)Parental-child conflict

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15

Primary sex characteristics relate to _____; secondary sex characteristics refer to the _____.

A)Ejaculation; menarche
B)Breasts and facial hair; ovaries and testes
C)Emotional maturity; hormone surges
D)Reproductive organs; nonreproductive organs

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16

According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstracts indicates

A)Concrete operational thought
B)Egocentrism
C)Formal operational thought
D)Conservation

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17

17. According to Kohlberg, preconventional morality focuses on _____; conventional morality is more concerned with _____.

A) upholding laws and social rules; self-interest
B) self-interest; basic ethical principles
C) upholding laws and social rules; basic ethical principle
D) self-interest; upholding laws and social rules

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18

In Erikson’s stages, the primary task during adolescence is

A)Attaining formal operations
B)Forging an identity
C)Developing a sense of intimacy with another person
D)Living independent of parents

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19

Some developmental psychologist now refer to the period form 18 to the mid-twenties and beyond (up to the time social independence as

A)Emerging adulthood
B)Adolescence
C)Formal operations
D)True maturity

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20

By age 65, a person would be most likely to experience a cognitive decline in the ability to

A)Recall and list all the important terms and concepts in a chapter
B)Select the correct definition in a multiple-choice question
C)Evaluate whether a statement is true or false
D)Exercise sound judgment in answering an essay question

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21

Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to love and work. Erikson agrees, observing that the adult struggles to attain intimacy an

A)affiliation
B)Identity
C)Competence
D)Generativity

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22

Contrary to what many people assume,

A)Older people are much happier than adolescents
B)Men in their forties express much greater dissatisfaction with life than do women of the same age
C)People of all ages report similar levels of happiness
D)Those whose children have recently left home – the empty nesters – have the lowest level of happiness of all groups

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23

Developmental researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to believe in _____; those who emphasize biological maturation tend to believe in _____.

A)Nature; nurture
B)Continuity; stages
C)Stability; changes
D)Randomness; predictability

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24

Although development is life long, there is stability of personality over time. For example

A)Most personality traits emerge in infancy and persist throughout life
B)Temperament tends to remain stable throughout life
C)Few people change significantly after adolescence
D)People tend to undergo greater personality changes as they age

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