Study Guide for Memmler's the Human Body in Health and Disease: Chapter 17 The Human Body in Health and Disease Flashcards
Definition of Immune System
certain types of blood cells and the lymphatic system
Function of the Lymphatic System
2. Fluid Balance
Definition of Lymph
watery substance that filters into body tissue.
Where is lymph NOT found (2)
What does the lymphatic system include? (5)
5. lymph vessels
What is the difference between an infection and inflammation?
Infection includes the presence of a PATHOGEN while inflammation does not.
What are the 6 Factors involved in a chain of infection? Give an example of each.
1. Pathogen (bacteria)
2. Reservoir (standing water)
3. Place of Exit (mouth)
4. Place of Entry (meatus)
5. Method of Transmission (airborne)
6. Susceptible Host (healthcare workers)
definition of nonspecific defenses
effective against any harmful agents
definition of specific defenses
effective against certain agents
What are the means of defense of the human body?
Definition of Phagocytosis
White blood cells take in and destroy waste and foreign material (neurophils and macrophages)
Definition of Natural killer cells
-reconginize body cells with abnormal membranes
-found in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood
Definition of Inflammation
-heat, redness, swelling, pain
-leukocytes enter tissues
Definition of Fever
-decrease some organisms ability to multiply
Definition of Interferon
prevent nearby cells from producing more viruses
Definition of Immunity
power to overcome a specific disease agent
What is the difference between inborn immunity and acquired immunity?
Inborn immunity is what a person is born with. Acquired immunity develops after birth, is active or passive, and may be naturally or artificially acquired.
Definition of Naturally Acquired immunity
through contact with a specific disease organism
Definition of Artificially acquired immunity
vaccination can make a person's body manufacture antibodies
What is the Chart of Immunity
How to complement proteins respond to antibodies? (4)
1. coats foreign cells
2. destroys cells
Definition of Antigen
foreign substance that enters the body and promotes immune response of certain lymphocytes.
-originate in stem cells
-change to t cells in thymus
4 types of t cells:
1. Killer- destroy foreign cells
2. Memory- stay in body and remember antigens
3. Helper- stimulate lyphocytes to help destroy foreign material
4. Regulatory- keeps immune system from being overactive
-recognize specific foreign antigens
-stimulates plasma cells and b memory cells
accumulation of lymphatic fluid in lower body tissues by parasitic worms
cancer of lymph nodes
reaction to substances that are normally harmless
allergic response occuring within seconds of exposed allergen.
enlargement of spleen
reaction against the body's own antigens and turns against itself.