Chapter 6-Blackboard quiz Flashcards


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1

A radiograph reveals epiphyseal lines in the long bones of a 12- year-old's hand. Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.
  2. Administration of growth hormone will stimulate further bone growth in length.
  3. Intramembranous ossification will enable continued growth in length.
  4. More growth will occur during the teenage years as sex hormones stimulate rebuilding of epiphyseal plates.

A

2

Appositional growth produces:

  1. growth in width.
  2. endochondral ossification.
  3. growth in length.
  4. Intramembranous ossification.

A

3

As a result of the increase of testosterone at puberty for males:

  1. appositional bone growth increases.
  2. osteoblasts increase the rate of bone resorption.
  3. epiphyseal plates widen rapidly.
  4. intramembranous ossification increases.

A

4

Blood cells are made in the red bone marrow of bones, a process known as:

  1. bone resorption.
  2. ossification.
  3. hematopoiesis.
  4. osteoporosis.

C

5

Bone growth and remodeling depends on adequate intake of:

  1. sodium, calcium, and vitamin E.
  2. vitamin A, vitamin C, and chlorine.
  3. calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin K.
  4. calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B.

C

6

Bone growth in length occurs at the epiphyseal plate in:

  1. flat bones.
  2. long bones.
  3. short bones
  4. irregular bones.

B

7

Bone is the most important storehouse in the body for:

  1. chlorine.
  2. iron.
  3. sodium.
  4. calcium.

D

8

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

  1. osteogenic cell
  2. osteoblast
  3. osteoclast
  4. osteocyte

C

9

Bones with a diaphysis and epiphyses are classified as:

  1. short bones.
  2. flat bones.
  3. irregular bones.
  4. long bones.

D

10

Branching "ribs" of bone present in spongy bone are known as:

  1. canaliculi.
  2. trabeculae.
  3. lamellae.
  4. lacunae.

B

11

Cells that develop into osteoblasts are:

  1. osteoclasts.
  2. osteocytes.
  3. osteons.
  4. osteogenic cells.

D

12

Charlie has a break in the shaft of his thigh bone. He broke the:

  1. epiphysis.
  2. articular cartilage.
  3. diaphysis.
  4. epiphyseal plate.

C

13

Correctly order the following key steps in the process of endochondral ossification.

1. Chondrocytes die.

2. Osteoblasts build the bone collar on the external surface of the bone.

3. Perichondrium is invaded by blood vessels.

4. In the primary ossification center, osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with early spongy bone.

5. Perichondrial cells differentiate into osteogenic cells then into osteoblasts.

  1. 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
  2. 3, 5, 2, 1, 4
  3. 3, 1, 2, 3, 5
  4. 4, 3, 2, 1, 5

B

14

For a person who starts running for exercise,

  1. bone deposition exceeds bone resorption.
  2. bone deposition is not related to bone resorption.
  3. bone deposition equals bone resorption.
  4. bone deposition is less than bone resorption.

A

15

How are carpals and tarsals classified by shape?

  1. flat bones
  2. irregular bones
  3. long bones
  4. short bones

D

16

How would the removal of hydroxyapatite crystals from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?

  1. The bone would be less flexible.
  2. The bone would be stronger.
  3. The bone would be more flexible.
  4. The bone would be less compressible.

C

17

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows:

  1. in a circular fashion.
  2. from the edges inward.
  3. by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis.
  4. by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis.

D

18

Intramembranous ossification occurs in:

  1. secondary bone.
  2. arm and leg bones.
  3. long bones.
  4. skull bones.

D

19

Osteoblasts are to bone deposition as:

  1. osteoclasts are to hematopoiesis.
  2. osteocytes are to fat storage.
  3. osteocytes are to bone formation.
  4. osteoclasts are to bone resorption.

D

20

Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the:

  1. epiphyses.
  2. diaphysis.
  3. articular cartilage.
  4. periosteum.

B

21

Relatively inactive bone cells that help to maintain the ECM are:

  1. osteogenic cells.
  2. osteoclasts.
  3. osteoblasts.
  4. osteocytes.

D

22

Secondary ossification centers are characteristic of:

  1. mesenchymal ossification.
  2. endochondral ossification.
  3. intramembranous ossification.
  4. appositional growth.

B

23

The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are:

  1. circumferential lamellae.
  2. trabeculae.
  3. concentric lamellae.
  4. lacunae.

A

24

The patella is classified as a sesamoid bone since it:

  1. has an irregular shape.
  2. has a diaphysis and epiphyses.
  3. is located within tendons.
  4. is longer than it is wide.

C

25

The periosteum is secured to underlying bone by collagen fibers called:

  1. canaliculi.
  2. trabeculae.
  3. Volkmann's canals.
  4. perforating (Sharpey's) fibers.

D

26

The small, fluid-filled cavity occupied by an osteocyte is called a(n):

  1. osteon.
  2. lacuna.
  3. central canal.
  4. trabecula.

B

27

The structural units of mature compact bone are called:

  1. canaliculi.
  2. osteocytes.
  3. lacunae.
  4. osteons.

D

28

The term diploƫ refers to the:

  1. two types of marrow found within most bones.
  2. fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue.
  3. internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.
  4. double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone.

C

29

Thin, broad bones should be classified as:

  1. short bones.
  2. flat bones.
  3. irregular bones.
  4. long bones.

B

30

What accounts for the majority of bone (osseous) tissue matrix?

  1. bone marrow
  2. collagen fibers
  3. calcium salts
  4. osteoid

C

31

What canals connect lacunae together?

  1. central (Haversian) canals
  2. canaliculi
  3. perforating (Volkmann's) canals
  4. central canals

B

32

What cells contribute to the process of calcification during intramembranous ossification?

  1. osteoclasts
  2. keratinocytes
  3. osteocytes
  4. osteoblasts

D

33

What hormone promotes an increase in the activity of osteoclasts?

  1. estrogen
  2. testosterone
  3. calcitonin
  4. parathyroid hormone (PTH)

D

34

What is the last process to occur in the epiphyseal plate?

  1. maturation
  2. proliferation
  3. calcification
  4. ossification

D

35

What prompts the closure of the epiphyseal plate around age 18- 21?

  1. chondrocytes actively divide
  2. chondrocytes increase in size and mature
  3. mitosis in the zone of calcification
  4. ossification of the zone of proliferation

D

36

What structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length?

  1. lacunae
  2. epiphyseal plate
  3. osteon
  4. epiphyseal line

B

37

What tissue serves as the model for bones formed during endochondral ossification?

  1. spongy bone
  2. hyaline cartilage
  3. compact bone
  4. fibrocartilage

B

38

What type of bone growth do you think a 40-year-old male experiences?

  1. lengthwise growth
  2. endochondral ossification
  3. longitudinal growth
  4. appositional growth

D

39

What type of bone is adapted to withstand stresses arriving from many directions?

  1. spongy bone
  2. compact bone
  3. lamellar bone
  4. osteon bone

A

40
card image

What type of bone is illustrated?

  1. compact bone
  2. spongy bone
  3. hyaline cartilage
  4. articular cartilage

B

41

What vitamin deficiency causes rickets in children?

  1. vitamin K
  2. vitamin A
  3. vitamin C
  4. vitamin D

D

42

Which cells participate in the process of bone deposition?

  1. osteoclasts
  2. osteocytes
  3. lacuna
  4. osteoblasts

D

43

Which dietary requirement for bone health can be made in response to skin exposure to UV light?

  1. vitamin C
  2. vitamin K
  3. calcium ions
  4. vitamin D

D

44

Which of the following are NOT components of an osteon?

  1. lamellae
  2. trabeculae
  3. canaliculi
  4. lacunae

B

45

Which of the following persists for life?

  1. primary ossification center
  2. epiphyseal plate
  3. primary bone
  4. articular cartilage

D

46

Which statement best describes primary bone?

  1. Primary bone is stronger than secondary bone since it contains many lamellae.
  2. Primary bone contains abundant osteocytes and little inorganic matrix.
  3. Primary bone has regularly arranged parallel bundles of collagen fibers for strength.
  4. Primary bone contains a higher percentage of inorganic matrix than secondary bone.

B

47

Whose bone marrow is mostly red?

  1. elderly
  2. young adults
  3. infants
  4. middle-aged adults

C

48

Why are collagen fibers a critical component of bone?

  1. Collagen fibers help trap water in the ECM.
  2. Collagen fibers help the bone resist compression.
  3. Collagen fibers help bone resist torsion.
  4. Collagen fibers act as "glue" to bind components together.

C

49

Why is articular cartilage necessary for long bones?

  1. Articular cartilage lines all inner surfaces of the bone.
  2. Articular cartilage houses red bone marrow for hematopoiesis.
  3. Articular cartilage allows bones to rub together with reduced friction at joints.
  4. Articular cartilage is the site of lengthwise growth in young children and adolescents.

C

50

Within the epiphyseal plate, which zone houses actively dividing cartilage cells in their lacunae?

  1. zone of reserve cartilage
  2. zone of proliferation
  3. zone of hypertrophy
  4. zone of ossification

B