Chapter 10 Motivation Rehearse it!

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1

Today’s Evolutionary Psychology shares an idea that was an underlying assumption of instinct theory. That idea is that

A)Physiological needs arouse Physiological states
B)Gene predispose species-typical behavior
C)Physiological needs increase arousal
D)External needs energize and direct behavior

B)Gene predispose species-typical behavior

2

In drive-reduction theory, the maintenance of a balanced internal state is called

A)Instinct
B)Pursuit of stimulus
C)A hierarchy of needs
D)Homeostasis

D)Homeostasis

3

_____ theory attempts to explain behaviors that do NOT reduce physiological needs

A)Instinct
B)Evolutionary
C)Drive-reduction
D)Arousal

D)Arousal

4

The effects of external incentives, such as the smell of baking bread, are best explained in terms of

A)Biological needs
B)Instinct
C)Individual Learning Histories
D)Homeostasis

C)Individual Learning Histories

5

According to Maslov’s hierarchy of needs, our most basic needs are physiological, including the need for food, water, and oxygen; Just above these are

A)Safety
B)Self-esteem
C)Belongingness
D)Self-transcendence

A)Safety

6

Hunger occurs in response to high blood insulin levels and

A)High blood glucose and low levels of ghrelin
B)Low blood glucose and high levels of ghrelin
C)A low basal metabolic rate
D)A high basal metabolic rate

B)Low blood glucose and high levels of ghrelin

7

According to set point theory, our body maintains itself at particular weight level. This “weight thermostat” is an example of

A)Homeostasis
B)An eating disorder
C)Individual learning
D)Binge-purge episode

A)Homeostasis

8

Which of the following is a genetically disposed response to food

A)An aversion to eating cats and dogs
B)An interest in novel foods
C)A preference for sweet and salty foods
D)An aversion to carbohydrates

C)A preference for sweet and salty foods

9

Which of the following statements is true of bulimia nervosa?

A)People with bulimia continue to want to losa weight even when they are underweight
B)Bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal range
C)Bulimia patients often come from middle-class families that are competitive, high-achieving, and protective.
D)If one twin is diagnosed with bulimia, the chances of the other twin’s sharing the disorder are greater if they are fraternal rather than identical

B)Bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal range

10

Obese people find it very difficult to lose weight permanently. This is due to several factors, including that fact that

A)With dieting, fat cells shrink and then disappear
B)The set point of obese people is lower than average
C)With dieting, basal metabolic rate increases
D)There is a genetic influence on body weight.

D)There is a genetic influence on body weight.

11

11.In describing the sexual response cycle, Masters and Johnson noted that

A)A plateau phase followed orgasm
B)Men experience a refractory period during which they cannot experience an orgasm
C)The feeling that accompanies orgasm is stronger in men than in women
D)Testosterone is released in the female as well as in the male

B)Men experience a refractory period during which they cannot experience an orgasm

12

One striking effect of hormonal changes on human sexual behavior is the

A)Arousing influence of erotic materials
B)Sharp rise in sexual interest at puberty
C)Decrease in women’s sexual desire at the time of ovulation
D)Increase in testosterone levels in castrated males

B)Sharp rise in sexual interest at puberty

13

Sexual behavior is motivated by internal biological factors, by external stimuli, and by imagined stimuli. An example of an external stimuli that might influence sexual behavior is

A)Blood levels of testosterone
B)The onset of puberty
C)A sexually explicit film
D)An erotic fantasy or dream

C)A sexually explicit film

14

Factors contributing to teen pregnancies include ignorance about reproduction and contraception, guilt about sexual behavior, mass media norms of promiscuity, insuffient communication about contraception, and

A)The “just say no” attitude
B) The unavailability of abortion
C)The decreased rate of sexually transmitted diseases
D)Alcohol use

D)Alcohol use

15

Current research suggests several possible contributions to sexual orientation. Which of the following is NOT one of those contributions

A)Certain cell clusters in the hypothalamus
B)A domineering mother and ineffectual father
C)Multiple genes interacting with other influences
D)Exposure to hormone levels typically experiences by female fetuses

B)A domineering mother and ineffectual father

16

Which of the following is NOT part of the evidence presented to support the view that humans are strongly motivated by a need to belong

A)Students who rated themselves as “very happy” also tended to have satisfying close relationship
B)Social exclusion – such as exile of solitary confinement – is considered a severe form of punishment
C)As adults, adopted children tend to resemble their biological parents and yearn for affliction with them
D)Children who are extremely neglected become withdrawn, frightened, and speechless

C)As adults, adopted children tend to resemble their biological parents and yearn for affliction with them