Psychology Chapter 8 Flashcards

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Sexual Orientation is best described as

A. As the direction of one's gender identity

B. By the concept of gender roles

C. As the sense we have of our maleness or femaleness

D. In terms of the gender of one's sexual partner

Answer: A


Which of the following is the best definition of drive?

A. A state of bodily tension that arises from an unmet need

B. A state of deprivation or deficiency

C. An incentive that pulls one in the direction of obtaining it

D. A reward or other stimulus that motivates one to act

Answer: A


Incentives are

A. Rewards that motivate us to behave in a certain way

B. Instinctually based motives

C. Drives acquired through experience

D. Physiologically based needs

Answer: A


Anorexia nervosa is

A. Equally prevalent in men and women

B. A major cause of obesity

C. A disorder in which episodes of binge eating are followed by purging

D. A form of food restriction that results in extremely low body weight

Answer: D


What does a polygraph test measure?

A. Unconscious deception

B. Intentional lying

C. Facial expressions associated with lying

D. Patterns of bodily arousal

Answer: D


Incentive value is

A. The lowest need in Maslow's hierarchy

B. The strength of a reward's "pull" on one's behavior

C. The amount of drive reduction a behavior has

D. The amount of effort expended in attaining a difficult goal

Answer: B


Which hormone do scientists believe works on the hypothalamus to stimulate appetite and eating?

A. Dopamine

B. Neuropeptide Y

C. Leptin

D. Melatonin

Answer: B


All but which of the following are common medical complications arising from bulimia?

A. Constipation

B. Loss of menstruation

C. Decay of tooth enamel

D. Frequent vomiting

Answer: B


The right prefrontal cortex _____

A. Is more active when we process positive emotions

B. Evaluates verbal stimuli for threat potential

C. Provides the subjective experience of positive emotions

D. Is more active when we process negative emotions

Answer: E


You read an article on the Internet suggesting that when people experience emotions, they simultaneously feel the emotion and have corresponding bodily reactions. You suspect that this article was written by someone who supports the ____ theory of emotion.​

A. Two- factor

B. James-Lange

C. Cannon-Bard

D. Facial Feedback

Answer: C


The facial-feedback hypothesis suggests that​

A. mimicking the facial expression associated with an emotion will result in the experience of that emotion.

B. facial expressions exhibited by one person will be mimicked by another.

C. mimicking the facial expression associated with an emotion will result in the experience of the opposite emotion.

D. people primarily recognize other people’s emotions by their facial expressions.

Answer: A


Sandra says that she is attracted to both females and males. Sandra is describing her​

A. Sexual dysfunction

B. Sexual orientation

C. Gender role

D. Sexual identity

Answer: B


Motivation includes factors that _______ goal-directed behavior.

a. ​direct

b. ​activate and direct



d. ​activate, direct, and sustain

e. ​sustain

Answer: D


The foremost advocate of drive theory was

a. ​William James.

b. ​William McDougall.

c. ​Harry Harlow.

d. ​Clark Hull.

e. Sigmund Freud.

Answer: D


Of the following factors, which is most likely to be linked to personal happiness?​

a. ​having friends

b. ​being intelligent

c. ​being a lottery winner

d. ​having good health

e. ​having wealth

Answer: A


Regarding Maslow’s theory of motivation, which of the following statements is FALSE?​

a. Maslow believed that we all have the ability to follow our own paths toward achieving self-actualization.

b. ​Maslow’s theory has been criticized for focusing too much on psychosocial needs and not enough on biological needs.

c. ​A person’s needs may not be ordered in the fixed manner suggested by Maslow’s hierarchy.

d. ​One criticism of Maslow’s model is that the same behavior may reflect multiple needs.

e. ​Maslow’s model has intuitive appeal.

Answer: B


Vonda is exceptionally skilled at perceiving emotions in others, which is an important element of emotional intelligence. Vonda has a high level of​

a. ​sympathy.

b. ​extraversion.

c. ​need for affiliation.

d. ​empathy.

e. ​self-actualization

Answer: D


The hippo-campus is involved in processing information relating to the context of _____.​

a. ​joy

b. ​happiness

c. ​fear

d. ​pleasure stimuli

e. ​sadness

Answer: C


Which researcher(s) identified the sexual response cycle?​

a. ​Seligman and Ekman

b. ​Masters and Johnson

c. ​Bem

d. ​Maslow

e. ​Freud

Answer: B


Shelby, an avid bird watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates ________ theory.

a. ​drive

b. ​arousal

c. ​instinct

d. incentive

e. set point

Answer: C


Which of the following is a secondary drive?​

a. ​desire to earn money

b. ​hunger

c. ​sleep

d. ​sexual desire

Answer: A


Which of the following words is/are derived from the Latin movere, meaning “to move”?

a. motivation, emotion, and arousal

b. ​motivation

c. ​arousal

d. motivation and emotion

e. ​emotion

Answer: D


Regarding sexual dysfunctions, which of the following statements is FALSE?​

a. ​Women are more likely than men to experience lack of sexual desire and difficulty reaching orgasm.

b. ​Testosterone, produced in the testes and in the adrenal glands but not in the ovaries, energizes sexual drives in men but not women.

c. Occasional problems with sexual interest and/or response are fairly common.

d. Sexual dysfunctions may have psychosocial causes.

e. ​Most cases of erectile disorder are the result of biological factors, particularly circulatory problems.

Answer: B


Women are generally better at recognizing _____, whereas men are generally better at recognizing _____.

a. ​happy or sad faces; angry faces

b. ​angry faces; sad faces

c. ​happy faces; sad faces

d. ​sad faces; happy faces

e. ​provocative faces; rebellious faces

Answer: A


Vasocongestion (blood pooling in genitals) characterizes which phase of the sexual response cycle?​

a. ​excitement phase in males and orgasm phase in females

b.​excitement phase in males

c. ​orgasm and excitement phase in females and males

d. ​excitement phase in females

e. excitement phase in both females and males

Answer: E


Performance anxiety is most likely to _____.​

a. make it difficult or impossible for a woman to become adequately aroused

b. ​prevent sexual arousal from occurring

c. ​affect sexual arousal in heterosexual males but not gay males

d. ​cause delayed ejaculation in men

e. ​increase the level of androgen in both males and females

Answer: A


In drive theory, inborn is to ______ as experience is to ______.

a. biological drives; primary drives

b. ​primary drives; secondary drives

c. ​homeostasis; imbalance

d. ​imbalance; homeostasis

e. ​secondary drives; primary drives

Answer: B


When Walter’s blood sugar dips, he becomes hungry. He eats, and then he is no longer hungry—his body is back in balance. This balancing is an example of

a. ​optimal level of arousal.

b. ​the two-factor model.

c. ​self-actualization.

d. ​homeostasis.

e. ​instinct.

Answer: D


In his research on hunger and the brain, Dr. VanderZyl stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of his animal subjects. This stimulation​

a. ​induces eating in animals, even if they are full.

b. ​induces eating only in animals that have recently eaten but are still hungry.

c. ​reduces eating in animals that are full.

d. ​reduces eating in animals that are hungry.

e. ​induces eating only in animals that have not eaten in a while.

Answer: A


The two-factor theory of emotion suggests that emotions​

a. ​are universal across cultures.

b. follow bodily arousal.

c. ​occur simultaneously with bodily arousal.

d. ​result from a combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal.

e. ​are processed by two pathways in the brain.

Answer: D


What is the eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating accompanied by inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of medications such as laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise)?​

a. ​distorted body image

b. ​anorexia nervosa

c. ​compulsive overeating

d. ​bulimia nervosa

Answer: D


Which of the following is the best description of the nature of sexual orientation?

a. ​two opposite, complementary poles

b. ​three fixed categories—homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual

c. ​a triangle, with each orientation falling at one of the points

d. ​a continuum with many gradations

e. ​two opposite, conflicting poles

Answer: D


Changes in blood sugar and circulating fats are detected by the

a. hippocampus.

b. ​cortex.

c. ​hypothalamus.

d. ​amygdala.

e. ​thalamus.

Answer: C


According to the text, each of the following factors plays a major role in obesity EXCEPT

a. ​behavioral patterns.

b. ​laziness.

c. ​genetics.

d. ​eating in response to emotional cues.

e. ​environmental factors like television commercials.

Answer: B


In a particular society, men are expected to provide protection and monetary support, while women are expected to tend to the home and children. These expectations reflect _______ for females and males in the society.

a. ​gender confusion

b. ​sexual orientations

c. ​sex roles

d. ​gender roles

e. ​gender identities

Answer: D


The three components of emotions are

a. ​bodily arousal, motives, and nervous system activation.

b. ​bodily arousal, cognitions, and expressed behavior.

c. ​bodily arousal, cognitions, and memories.

d. ​expressed behavior, cognitions, and conditioned responses.

e. ​bodily arousal, motives, and expressed behavior.

Answer: B


What is an instinct?​

a. ​a factor that activates, directs, and sustains goal-directed behavior

b. ​a drive that is acquired through experience

c. ​a fixed inborn pattern of responding that is species-specific

d. ​an innate reward or other stimulus that motivates one to act

e. ​an internal state that prompts stimulation-seeking behavior

Answer: C


The hierarchy of needs model of human motivation was developed by

a. ​McClelland.

b. ​Keltner.

c. ​Zuckerman.

d. ​Maslow.

e. ​Hull.

Answer: D


What is the typical sequencing of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?​

a. Physiological, safety, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization

b. ​Physiological, safety, esteem, love/belongingness, self-actualization

c. Safety, physiological, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization

d. ​Love/belongingness, physiological, safety, esteem, self-actualization

e. ​Physiological, love/belongingness, safety, esteem, self-actualization

Answer: A


Psychosocial causes of sexual dysfunction include all the following EXCEPT​

a. ​exposure to homosexuals.

b. ​experiencing a rape or other sexual trauma.

c. ​failure to communicate sexual preferences.

d. ​relationship problems.

e. ​exposure to negative attitudes toward sexuality in childhood.

Answer: A


In contrast to the lateral hypothalamus, stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus

a. ​has no effect on eating.

b. ​restores homeostasis.

c. makes a full animal start eating.

d. ​makes a hungry animal eat.

e. ​makes an animal stop eating

Answer: E


The rate at which one’s body burns calories at rest is called​

a. ​set point.

b. homeostasis.

c. ​basal metabolism or basal metabolic rate.

d. ​the vasocongestion or parabolic rate.

e. ​the caloric consumption rate.

Answer: C


Generalizing from Zuckerman’s research on sensation seeking, which of the following statements best describes a sensation-seeker?

a. ​would enjoy going to a loud nightclub instead of a quiet restaurant

b. ​prefers sleeping in a comfortable bed and room over camping out

c. ​would probably not be interested in trying hypnosis

d. ​prefers being with familiar people over meeting new people

e. prefers quiet parties to wild ones

Answer: A


According to the text, the most widely studied psychosocial need is the need for

a. ​affiliation.

b. ​social relationships.

c. ​arousal.

d. acceptance.

e. ​achievement

Answer: E


Complex feeling states having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components are called​

a. ​emotions.

b. ​emotional intelligence's.

c. ​incentives.

d. ​need and drives.

e. ​complex motives.

Answer: A


The highest needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are​

a. ​esteem needs.

b. ​self-actualization needs.

c. ​safety needs.

d. ​love and belongingness needs.

e. ​physiological needs.

Answer: B


The physiological component of an emotional experience involves _____.​

a. ​reduced activation of sympathetic nervous system

b. ​the subjective experience of the emotion

c. ​release of the hormone melatonin

d. ​bodily arousal

e. ​feelings of fear or love

Answer: D


Which of the following is not one of the six universally recognized emotional expressions?

a. ​regret

b. ​sadness

c. ​fear

d. ​anger

e. ​disgust

Answer: A


Which brain structure might best be described as an “emotional computer”?​

a. ​corpus callosum

b. ​amygdala

c. ​hippocampus

d. ​hypothalamus

e. ​thalamus

Answer: B


Terry is described as having extrinsic motivation for the achievement of his goals. This means that Terry​

a. ​has a desire for external rewards.

b. ​has a desire for internal gratification.

c. ​focuses on immediate outcomes.

d. ​has low achievement motivation.

e. ​focuses on short-term outcomes.

Answer: A