AP Practice Chapter 4

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Nature Vs. Nurture
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1

An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called the:

a) heritability estimate.
b) nucleotide.
c) double helix.
d) genome.

d) genome.

2

Bacteria that resist a hospital's antibiotics rapidly multiply as other bacteria die off. This best illustrates:

a) gene complexes.
b) behavior genetics.
c) heritability.
d) natural selection.

d) natural selection.

3

Compared to women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to feel jealous rage over a mate's having sex with someone else.

a) less; more
b) more; less
c) less; less
d) more; more

d) more; more

4

It has been suggested that men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates:

a) social learning theory.
b) behavior genetics.
c) Freudian psychology.
d) an evolutionary perspective.

d) an evolutionary perspective.

5

Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are ________ similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and ________ similar in risk of divorce.

a) less; less
b) more; more
c) equally; more
d) more; equally

d) more; equally

6

Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

a) personality traits
b) religious beliefs
c) political attitudes
d) moral values

a) personality traits

7

Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of:

a) the X chromosome.
b) temperament.
c) personal space.
d) natural selection.

b) temperament.

8

Estimates of the heritability of personality traits are most directly associated with the research efforts of:

a) molecular biologists.
b) behavior geneticists.
c) evolutionary psychologists.
d) gender schema theorists.

b) behavior geneticists.

9

In emphasizing that the behavioral effects of heredity depend on the specific environment in which one is raised, psychologists are highlighting the importance of:

a) the double helix.
b) gene complexes.
c) natural selection.
d) nature-nurture interactions.

d) nature-nurture interactions.

10

Less than 10 percent of children's personality differences are attributable to the various ________ shared by family members.

a) genes
b) temperaments
c) home environments
d) cultural settings

c) home environments

11

Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by:

a) sound and music.
b) light and colors.
c) touch and massage.
d) movement and acceleration.

c) touch and massage.

12

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:

a) norms.
b) gene complexes.
c) gender identities.
d) heritability estimates.

a) norms.

13

Over the last century, Western parents have placed ________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.

a) decreasing; increasing
b) increasing; decreasing
c) decreasing; decreasing
d) increasing; increasing

c) decreasing; decreasing

14

Jaquetta was exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development. As a young girl, Jaquetta is likely to:

a) prefer toy cars over dolls.
b) exhibit superior verbal intelligence.
c) develop a male gender identity.
d) demonstrate a lack of gender schemas.

a) prefer toy cars over dolls.

15

Concepts of maleness and femaleness that influence our perceptions are called gender:

a) types.
b) schemas.
c) roles.
d) complexes.

b) schemas.

16

Your complete genetic code consists of the exact sequence of ________ within your ________.

a) memes; genome
b) nucleotides; DNA
c) genes; sex chromosomes
d) synapses; nervous system

b) nucleotides; DNA

17

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to:

a) gender schemas.
b) the X chromosome.
c) memes.
d) genetic predispositions.

d) genetic predispositions.

18

Compared to their female classmates, college-age men are ________ likely to engage in unsafe sexual practices and ________ likely to die in auto crashes.

a) more; more
b) more; less
c) equally; more
d) more; equally
e) equally; equally

a) more; more

19

Evolutionary psychologists are likely to be criticized for ________ gender differences in human mate selection and for ________ the reproductive advantages of common social practices.

a) underestimating; underestimating
b) overestimating; overestimating
c) underestimating; overestimating
d) overestimating; underestimating

b) overestimating; overestimating

20

Two individuals are most likely to differ in intelligence if they are ________ twins who were raised ________.

a) fraternal; together
b) identical; apart
20. Two individuals are most likely to differ in intelligence if they are ________ twins who were raised ________.
a) fraternal; together
b) identical; apart
c) fraternal; apart
d) identical; together
d) identical; together

c) fraternal; apart

21

Identical twins reared apart have ________ similar personalities than identical twins reared together and ________ similar personalities than fraternal twins reared apart.

a) more; more
b) less; less
c) more; less
d) less; more

d) less; more

22

Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing:

a) sex chromosomes.
b) ethnic identities.
c) gender roles.
d) schemas.
e) genes.

e) genes.

23

Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcoholism would be of most direct interest to:

a) evolutionary psychologists.
b) molecular geneticists.
c) gender schema theorists.
d) Freudian psychologists.

b) molecular geneticists.

24

The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality development has been most characteristic of:

a) behavior geneticists.
b) Freudian psychologists.
c) gender schema theorists.
d) evolutionary psychologists.

b) Freudian psychologists.

25

Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.

a) prenatal environments
b) genetic predispositions
c) gender schemas
d) erotic plasticity

a) prenatal environments

26

Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. In order to avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens' smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of:

a) natural selections on gender typing.
b) temperament on physical health.
c) smoking preferences.
d) gene complexes on maturation.

c) smoking preferences.

27

The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by:

a) temperament.
b) natural selection.
c) testosterone.
d) norms.

d) norms.

28

A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

a) gene; X
b) nucleotide; X
c) gene; Y
d) nucleotide; Y

c) gene; Y

29

The expectations that men initiate dates and that women select wedding gifts best illustrate aspects of:

a) sexual orientation.
b) gender identity.
c) behavior genetics.
d) gene complexes.
e) gender roles.

e) gender roles.

30

Because he believes that worrying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty perceiving his own fears. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by:

a) social learning theory.
b) behavior genetics.
c) gender schema theory.
d) evolutionary psychology.

c) gender schema theory.

31

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to be criticized for:

a) providing hindsight explanations for human behaviors.
b) overemphasizing humans' capacity to learn and adapt to a variety of environments.
c) underestimating gender differences in mate selection.
d) overestimating cultural differences in human sexual behaviors.

a) providing hindsight explanations for human behaviors.

32

By insisting that humans are “nothing but” products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:

a) personal space.
b) individual responsibility.
c) natural selection.
d) gender identity.

b) individual responsibility.

33

Compared with today's North Americans, people in Japanese and Chinese cultures exhibit ________ concern for social harmony and ________ shyness toward strangers.

a) more; less
b) less; more
c) more; more
d) less; less

c) more; more

34

Mutations are gene replication errors that lead to a change in the sequence of:

a) memes.
b) hormones.
c) nucleotides.
d) gender schemas.

c) nucleotides.

35

Exceptionally timid and cautious infants tend to become shy and unassertive adolescents. This best illustrates the longterm stability of:

a) temperament.
b) memes.
c) gender schemas.
d) the X chromosome.

a) temperament.

36

The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits which have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of:

a) gender-typing.
b) natural selection.
c) behavior genetics.
d) gender schema theory.

b) natural selection.

37

Each of your body cells contains:

a) DNA molecules.
b) chromosomes.
c) nucleotides.
d) all of the above.

d) all of the above.

38

Adoptive parents are most likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

a) political attitudes
b) gender identity
c) extraversion
d) temperament

a) political attitudes

39

The heritability of intelligence refers to the extent to which:

a) intelligence is influenced by physical maturation.
b) genetically distinctive groups differ in intellectual aptitude.
c) the variation among people's intelligence can be attributed to their genetic differences.
d) intelligence is attributable to interactions between genes and experience.

c) the variation among people's intelligence can be attributed to their genetic differences.

40

A genetically female child who receives excess testosterone during prenatal growth is subsequently likely to develop:

a) an unusually strong heterosexual orientation.
b) a female gender role, but a male gender identity.
c) a male body with both X and Y chromosomes, unless there is corrective surgery.
d) more aggressive behavior patterns than most girls.

d) more aggressive behavior patterns than most girls.

41

The remarkable academic and vocational successes of the children of refugee Asian boat people best illustrate the importance of:

a) peer influence.
b) temperament.
c) family environment.
d) personal space.

c) family environment.

42

Genetically female children exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development subsequently exhibit more “tomboyish” behaviors than most girls. In order to avoid overestimating the influence of prenatal hormones on these behaviors, it should be noted that these children:

a) have unusually reactive temperaments.
b) may be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.
c) are affected by a variety of random errors in gene replication.
d) develop a more masculine brain-wiring pattern prior to birth.

b) may be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.

43

Twin studies are of most direct concern to:

a) evolutionary psychologists.
b) Freudian psychologists.
c) gender schema theorists.
d) behavior geneticists.

d) behavior geneticists.

44

The tendency to classify various occupations as masculine or feminine has often led men and women to limit themselves to an unnecessarily restricted range of career options. This best illustrates dynamics emphasized by:

a) evolutionary psychology.
b) behavior genetics.
c) gender schema theory.
d) Freudian psychology.

c) gender schema theory.

45

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that men will marry women who are ________ than they are.

a) less physically attractive
b) more sexually experienced
c) younger
d) more aggressive toward sexual rivals

c) younger

46

Compared with many Asian and African parents, today's North American parents are more likely to teach their children to value:

a) civil obedience.
b) emotional closeness.
c) personal independence.
d) family traditions.

c) personal independence.

47

Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in:

a) brain maturation.
b) gender schemas.
c) physical health.
d) temperament.

d) temperament.

48

Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted:

a) reproductive success.
b) personal happiness.
c) cultural diversity.
d) genetic mutations.

a) reproductive success.

49

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:

a) differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups.
b) developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.
c) differences among cultural groups are greater than person-to-person differences within cultural groups.
d) gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life experience.

b) developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.

50

Professor Archibald suggests that men are more likely than women to initiate casual sex because this has proven to be a more successful reproductive strategy for men than for women. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ theory.

a) social learning
b) evolutionary
c) gender schema
d) Freudian

b) evolutionary