___________ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from
the outside to the inside of the body.
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the
abdominal wall are called
D. muscularis mucosae.
E. muscularis externa.
These nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except
These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except
D. salivary glands.
Each of the
following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract.
Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?
A. lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
B. serosa, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa
C. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa, lamina propria
D. mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria
E. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa
The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by
A. the falciform ligament.
B. the mesentery.
C. the greater omentum.
D. the lesser omentum.
E. the esophageal hiatus.
Chemical digestion breaks down ____________ into _____________.
A. proteins; nucleotides
B. amino acids; proteins
C. polysaccharides; amino acids
D. nucleic acids; nucleotides
E. fatty acids; cholesterol
regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, and
its neurons are found in the ____________.
A. autonomic nervous system; serosa
B. central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae
C. enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
D. visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa
E. visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa
The surface of the
tongue is covered with ____________ stratified squamous epithelium,
and has bumps called __________________, site of taste buds.
A. keratinized; lingual papillae
B. keratinized; lingual frenulum
C. nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
D. nonkeratinized; tonsils
E. nonkeratinized; vallate papillae
Infants have ________________ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have
________________ permanent teeth.
A. 20; 32
B. 16; 20
C. 28; 20
D. 32; 20
E. 32; 32
From superficial to deep, these are the structures found in a typical
A. cementum, root canal, enamel
B. enamel, root canal, dentin
C. dentin, enamel, cementum
D. enamel, dentin, pulp
E. crown, enamel, dentin
These are normally found in saliva except
The ______________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the
______________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.
A. lingual; labial
B. submandibular; lingual
C. submandibular; sublingual
D. sublingual; parotid
E. lingual; sublingual
The swallowing center is located in
A. the mouth.
B. the oropharynx.
C. the esophagus.
D. the medulla oblongata.
E. the enteric nervous system.
The buccal phase of swallowing is under _____________ control and the
pharyngo-esophageal phase is ______________.
A. central nervous system; also controlled by the central nervous system
B. central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
C. autonomic nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
D. voluntary; also voluntary
E. involuntary; also involuntary
Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally
A. pharyngeal constrictors.
B. the upper esophageal sphincter.
C. the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
D. esophageal glands.
E. pharyngeal and buccal sphincters.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ____________ cells.
B. regenerative (stem)
____________, which is secreted by ___________ cells, is necessary
for Vitamin B12 absorption.
A. Intrinsic factor; parietal
B. Bile salts; chief
C. Lecithin; hepatic
D. Hydrochloric acid; parietal
E. Enterokinase; mucous
produced by ____________ and is activated by ___________.
A. chief cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells
B. chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells
C. parietal cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by chief cells
D. parietal cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by chief cells
E. enteroendocrine cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells
Why are several
digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?
A. because this saves one step in their synthesis
B. because gastric cells do not have the necessary enzymes for their synthesis
C. so they start digesting intracellular proteins of the gastric cells more quickly
D. so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
E. so they can start digesting dietary proteins more quickly
reflex serves to
A. relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food.
B. stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomach.
C. stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach.
D. inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.
E. relax the ileocecal valve when chyme is on its way to the colon.
______________ is a hormone, whereas ________________ is an enzyme.
A. Enterokinase; pepsin
B. Gastrin; secretin
C. Gastrin; cholecystokinin (CCK)
D. Gastric lipase; histamine
E. Secretin; pepsin
_____________ is associated with food stretching the stomach and
activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate
A. The cephalic phase
B. The gastric phase
C. The intestinal phase
D. The gastrointestinal phase
E. The mesenteric phase
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the
A. the pancreas.
B. the stomach.
C. the liver.
D. the spleen.
E. the small intestine.
A hepatic (portal)
triad consists of
A. right, left, and common hepatic ducts.
B. common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and bile duct.
C. the hepatic portal vein and two hepatic ducts.
D. bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein.
E. a central vein, hepatic lobule, and hepatic sinusoid.
Of the following components of bile, only _____________ has/have a
A. bile salts
E. neutral fats
The _______________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing
A. duodenum; neutral fats
B. ileum; bilirubin
C. gallbladder; cholesterol
D. pancreas; bile salts
E. liver; cholesterol
Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
B. cholecystokinin (CCK).
Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
D. sodium bicarbonate
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small
B. amino acids
E. water-soluble vitamins
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
A. salivary amylase
B. pancreatic amylase
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
A. gastric pits
B. surface of the gastric mucosa
C. intestinal crypts
D. brush border of the small intestine
E. cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine
The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated
with all these structures except
A. circular folds (plicae circulares).
B. intestinal length.
The migrating motor complex
A. milks the chyme toward the colon.
B. allows a bolus to move down the esophagus.
C. churns and mixes residue in the descending colon.
D. churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juices.
E. propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct.
The ______________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the
_________________ of the stomach.
A. villi; pyloric glands
B. rugae; Peyer patches
C. intestinal crypts; gastric pits
D. goblet cells; parietal cells
E. pyloric sphincter; ileocecal valve
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______________, whereas protein
digestion begins in the ______________.
A. liver; small intestine
B. small intestine; stomach
C. mouth; stomach
D. mouth; small intestine
E. stomach; small intestine
____________ break(s) down _______________.
A. Lactase; glucose
B. Peptidases; proteins
C. Lipases; micelles
D. Lactose; lactase
E. Nucleases; nucleotides
transport protein (SGLP)
A. is a uniport carrier.
B. is an antiport carrier.
C. uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium.
D. transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells.
E. transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells, and sodium in the opposite direction.
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the ____________, and
fatty acids are absorbed in the _______________.
A. small intestine; large intestine
B. small intestine; liver
C. stomach; small intestine
D. stomach; large intestine
E. small intestine; small intestine too
Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming
A. triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol.
B. low density lipoproteins (LDL).
D. emulsification droplets.
digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence
A. pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.
B. pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.
C. trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.
D. trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.
E. dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin.
___________ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal
absorptive cells, which process them into _________________.
A. Fat droplets; micelles
B. Fat droplets; chylomicrons
C. Micelles; fat globules
D. Micelles; chylomicrons
E. Fat globules; micelles
The three most abundant classes of nutrients are
A. carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals.
B. fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
C. proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
D. triglycerides, starches, and proteins.
E. proteins, fats, and minerals.
The muscle tone of the ________________ along the colon contracts it
lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called
A. circular folds; ceca
B. taeniae coli; haustra
C. haustra; taeniae coli
D. internal sphincters; omental (epiploic) appendages
E. internal sphincters; ceca
Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except
A. digest most of the proteins we get in the diet.
B. synthesize vitamin K.
C. produce some of the gases found in flatus.
D. digest cellulose.
E. form part of the feces.
Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.
Defecation is stimulated by
A. the chemical composition of the feces.
B. bacterial flora in the feces.
C. water content of the feces.
D. lipid content in the feces.
E. stretching of the rectum.
the _______________ regulates the flow of contents from stomach to the duodenum
A. gastric rugae
D. fundic region
Which of the following is not associated with the large absorptive surface of the small intestine?
A. Circular folds (plicae circulares)
B. Intestinal length
D. taste buds
The movement of colonic contents from one puckered section to another is called __________.
A. the gastrocolic reflex
B. the duodenocolic reflex
C. mass movement
D. haustral contraction
A 41 Y/O Female comes to the ER with abdominal pain in her right
upper quadrant(RUQ) that refers to her right shoulder blade. the
patient is obese andher clinical history shows she is taking birth
control pill what is the most likely diagnosis
B. kidney stones
C. prostate cancer
D. breast cancer
the following are exocrine enzymes produced by the pancreas except
substances lie asprine and cortisol can cause gastric ulcers by
A. inhibiting the production of HCL in the duodenum
B. inhibiting the production of mucus in the ascending colon
C. inhibiting the production of mucus in the stomach
D. inhibiting the production of gastrin in the rectum
breakdown of erythrocytes by the spleen will produce ________ which will be then process by the ________ for easier degradation
A. bilirubin ; liver
B. bilirubin ; small intestine
C. insulin ; pancreas
D. glucagon ; gallbladder
a 40 year old male with long history of alcoholism is admitted to the hospital . upon examination the physician notices hepatomegaly ascites and icteric pigmentation visibile on the skin and sclera the reason is :
A. the pancreas is obstructed and not making enough bilirubin
B. the large intestine is wide open and making too much HCL
C. the liver is not making albumin and the portal vein is obstructed
D. the stomach is obstructed and producing too much mucus
why is this patient showing icteric pigmentation
A. Because bilirubin is building up as a consequence of colon cancer
B. because gastrin is building up as a consequence of stomach cancer
C. because bilirubin is building up as a consequence of liver cirrhosis
D. because intrinsic factor is building up as a consequence of esophageal cancer