Which developmentalist is credited with having proposed the psychosocial theory of development?
a. Erik Erikson
b. lev vygotsky
c. sigmund freud
d. urie bronfenbrenner
Which of the following represents the correct order of the first three stages of psychosocial development?
a. basic trust vs. mistrust, initiative vs guilt, autonomy vs. shame and doubt
b. autonomy vs. shame and doubt, basic trust vs. mistrust, initiative vs guilt
c. initiative vs guilt, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, basic trust vs. mistrust
d. basic trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt
according to erikson, which is the foundation of human development?
d. trust in oneself and others
[Caden is a four month old child whose parents spend quite a bit of time with him. there is rarely a time when one of them is not holding him, and they always make sure to come to him when he cries in his crib. according to the first stage of Erikson's psychosocial theory of development, Caden should develop a sense of
a. basic trust
according to erikson, a proper balance of trust and mistrust leads children to develop a sense of ____________.
a blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt give rise to _________, the knowledge that, within limits, a youngster can act on his/her world with intentionality.
four year old luticia pretends to be a doctor and has begun to realize that she needs to be responsible and cooperate with her parents. according to erikson, this indicates that she is beginning to achieve a sense of
many parents play the "What do you want to be when you grow up?" game with their children. perhaps they don't realize that this question, in erikson's theory, helps preschoolers develop a sense of
d. basic trust
place the following basic emotions in the chronological order in which they typically emerge:
a. joy, anger, fear
b. fear, joy, anger
c. anger, joy, fear
d. joy, fear, anger
what is often the first indication that a child has developed the ability to experience the emotion of fear?
a. stranger wariness
b. separation anxiety
c. egocentric dystonia
d. generalized apprehension
basic emotions include all but which of the following?
which of the following is not a complex emotion?
Complex emotions differ from basic emotions in that complex emotions require some understanding of
c. waking states
Which of the following children is experiencing a complex emotion?
a. Ippy, who is surprised when his father sneezes loudly
b. martita, who smiles deeply when her mother smiles at her
c. michele, who sulks when her father catches her taking cookies that she knows she's not permitted to have
d. malcolm, cries when his toy falls out of his crib
there is a student who earned the highest score on a quiz in her math class. the teacher pointed out her triumph to the whole class, and her classmates applauded and told her how great she is. which of the following students would be most likely to be embarrassed by this public display?
a. Yvan, who is a Guatemalan-American child
b. Toin, who is a Korean-American child
c. Mario, who is an Italian-American child
d. Kjell, who is a European-American child
As early as _________ month(s) of age, infants begin to distinguish facial expressions associated with different emotions.
Infants, like adults, tend to pay more attention to faces depicting __________ emotions and pay attention to those faces for longer that other emotional displays.
Bowlby describes four phases in the growth of attachment. they are, in correct order:
a. preattachment, attachment in the making, true attachment, and reciprocal relationship
b. reciprocal relationship, attachment in the making, preattachment, and true attachment
c. preattachment, attachment in the making, reciprocal relationship, and true attachment
d. preattachment, attachment in the making, reciprocal relationship, attachment in the making, and true attachment
Which of the following does research suggest is more emphasized by fathers as they interact with their babies?
a. reading and talking to them
b. showing them toys
c. playing quiet games
d. physical play
Ainsworth created a research procedure that was/is used to test the different forms of attachment that may exist between a child and his/her caregiver. that procedure is called the __________.
a. Visual Cliff
b. Strange Situation
c. Shockbox Experiment
d. Apgar Protocol
research has consistently found that approximately __________ percent of American babies have secure attachment relationships.
research has found that children who have a(n) _________ attachment relationship with their parents have higher-quality friendships and fewer conflicts in their friendships than children with other types of attachments.
verna struggles with several different behavioral problems, including anxiety, anger, and aggressive actions. according to research presented by your authors, she is most likely to have had a(n) _____________ attachment relationship with her parents during her childhood.
many different factors contribute to the nature of attachment relationships between children and their parents. undoubtedly, the most important factor is
a. the age at which parents begin fostering an attachment with their children
b. the number of siblings in the home
c. the interactions between parents and their babies
d. genetic considerations
The fact that infant Ricardo has come to expect that his mother is available when he needs her means that Ricardo has developed
b. parallel play
c. an internal working model
What is it that distinguishes 'early' make believe play from 'later' make believe play?
a. the early play is usually abstract, while the later play is more concrete
b. the early play is based in true fantasy, while the later play is based on variations of real life circumstances
c. the early play usually requires realistic props, while the later play does not
d. the early play is done solo, while the later play involves peers
which statement is true regarding make-believe?
a. it seems to promote cognitive development
b. it is a sign of emotional disturbance
c. children make believe the same things in all cultures
d. it always involves imaginary companions
According to your authors, children who engage in make believe play tend to be more advanced in several areas. which of the following is not one of them?
one year old mathieu is afraid of the dog because he saw his father react with fear to the same dog. which term best explains why mathieu is afraid?
a. stranger wariness
b. avoidant attachment
c. complex emotions
d. social referencing
social ___________ refers to behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation.
the suppression of fear, anger, and joy by adults based on social norms is an example of emotional ____________.
children who have difficulty with emotional regulation often encounter all but which of the following?
a. problems solving problems
b. difficulties adjusting to school
c. conflicts with peers
d. inadequate physical growth
when children play alone but remain aware of an interested in what another child is doing, they are engaging in _________ play
any behavior that benefits another person is ____________.
kimmy is playing with her doll in her yard, and is watching as shira-leah is playing with a similar doll in the yard across the street. shira-leah is also aware of and observing kimmy, but the two girls have not yet played together. these youngsters are engaging in ___________ play.
the phrase, " interest but no interaction," best describes _______ play.
b. simple social
d. make believe
simple social play between toddlers typically begins
a. between 12 and 15 months of age
b. between 15 and 18 months of age
c. between 18 and 21 months of age
d. between 21 and 24 months of age
nell and delia have gotten together for a mommy meet during which they have coffee and chat at theirs homes. today they both have their 18 month old sons, steve and nash. while the ladies sip and chat, steve and nash crawl around on the floor pushing toy trucks and making a vroom sound. every now and them they switch trucks with each other. steve and nash are engaged in ______________ play.
b. simple social
the one word that best distinguishes simple social play from parallel play is
if a group of children are playing together, which of the following games would not be an example of cooperative play?
a. playing tag
b. hide and seek
c. playing with toy cars on the floor
d. playing house
the one word that best distinguishes cooperative play from parallel play is:
play that is organized around a particular theme, with each child taking on a different role, is called ___________ play.
d. simple social
your textbook presents three different types of play in which young children can engage. which of the following is the correct chronological order in which you would expect each type of play to appear?
a. simple social play, parallel play, cooperative play
b. parallel play, simple social play, cooperative play
c. parallel play, cooperative play, simple social play
d. cooperative play, simple social play, parallel play
play among girls is often described as ____________, while play among boys is often described as _____________.
a. antisocial, prosocial
b. enabling, constricting
c. prosocial, antisocial
d. constricting, enabling
when one's actions or remarks support others and sustain interactions, they can be described as engaging in ___________ exchange.
when one partner in an exchange behaves in ways that allows them to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other partner, (s)he is engaging in a(n) __________ exchange.
hulk often has to step in and solve disagreements between his son Hogan and his daughter brooke. this action best reflects the idea of a parent as a
b. social director
when a parent helps their child acquire and master the social skills needed to have successful interactions with peers, that parent is acting in the role of a __________.
b. play mate
c. social director
matthew sees that one of his kindergarten classmates is unhappy today because nobody is playing with him. matthew walks over to his classmate and asks if they can play together, which they do until the teacher calls for music time. matthew's actions demonstrate _______________ behavior.
all acts of altruistic and cooperative behavior are also
a. prosocial behaviors
b. basic emotions
c. examples of dispositional praise
d. social roles
prosocial behavior where both involved parties benefit is to _____________ as prosocial behavior where the actor does not benefit is to _____________.
a. cooperation, altruism
b. altruism, empathy
c. empathy, altruism
d. cooperation, altruism
the ability to experience and relate to another person's emotions is called
A ______________ is a set of cultural guidelines that dictate how a person should behave, particularly with other people.
a. social role
b. social rule
c. social norm
d. social more
young jean observes that her mother often cooks dinner, while her father is responsible for taking out the trash and mowing the lawn. she is learning _____________ that are associated with men and women.
a. gender identities
b. social roles
c. gender typing
d. social stereotypes
all cultures have gender ______________, which refers to beliefs and images about males and females that may or may not be true.
research has found that while 12 month old children look at gender-stereotyped toys equally, by the time children reach _____________ they look longer at toys that are associated with their own sex.
a. 14 months of age
b. 18 months of age
c. 24 months of age
d. 30 months of age
if he is like most preschoolers, dougie is likely to believe that girls are
a. physically aggressive
b. strong and dominant
c. verbally aggressive
d. capable of playing football
with regard to differences between man and women, research has found that there are, in fact, differences in all but which of the following area?
a. frequency of prosocial behaviors
b. verbal abilities
d. spatial ability
marlene is very angry at dominique, a girl in her class, because she feels that dominique has been flirting with her boyfriend. to get back at her, marlene starts spreading rumors about dominique that are designed to attack her character. marlene is using ____________ aggression to hurt her classmate.
research consistently finds that fathers and mothers treat their children differently based on the child's sex. which of the following statements accurately explains some of this difference?
a. fathers respond to children to promote direct aggression, while mothers respond to children to promote relational aggression
b. mothers respond to children based on their individual needs, while fathers respond to children based on gender stereotypes
c. mothers respond to children to promote direct aggression, while fathers respond to children to promote relational aggression
d. fathers respond to children based on their individual needs, while mothers respond to children based on gender stereotypes
children tend to have more gender neutral interests, attitudes, and self concepts when their parents are more
an individual's sense of themselves as a male or female is their
a. gender identity
b. gender role
c. gender type
d. gender stereotype
full understanding of gender is said to develop gradually in three stages. they include all but which of the following?
a. gender labeling
b. gender ambiguity
c. gender stability
d. gender constancy
According to erikson, the first three stages of psychosocial development involve the crisis of basic trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, and initiative vs guilt.
internal working models involve expectations about parental responsiveness
infants as early as four months of age will attend more to a face depicting a negative emotional expression than to face depicting a positive on
like adults, children use others' emotions to direct their own behaviors. this is called social referencing
when two children share the same toys and play with them in the same way, working together to refine their chosen game, they are engaging in parallel play.
imaginary friends are psychologically unhealthy and should be discouraged
girls interactions with each other are typically constricting, while boys interactions with each other are typically enabling
all cultures have gender stereotypes
as toddlers, girls tend to have smaller vocabularies than boys
a full understanding of one's gender begins by understanding that gender does not change over time.
joy, anger, fear, interest, disgust, distress, sadness, and surprise are considered to be __________.
when children are playing by themselves but are watching each other while they do so, they are engaging in ____________ play.
a group of neighborhood kids get together a few times a week to play hide and seek, and the game rotates from yard to yard. this is a large scale example of __________________ play.
_______________ is the actual experiencing of another's feeling
a social ______________ refers to a set of culturally determined guidelines about how one should behave, especially around other people
girls should play with dolls and boys should roughhouse with each other are both examples of _______________
an attempt to hurt another by damaging his or her peer relationships is referred to as _________________
an individual's sense of themselves as male or females is their ________________
in gender ________________ theory, children are believed to learn more about an activity only after first deciding whether it is masculine or feminine.
research has found that a(n) _____________ mother-child attachment is just as likely to occur, regardless of the quality, duration, and frequency of childcare. the age at which a child enters child care is similarly unlikely to interfere with such an attachment