General Psychology Edwards Exam 2 Flashcards


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1

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semiannual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of

a. Classical Conditioning

b. Spontaneous Recovery

c. Discrimination

d. Operant Conditioning

d. Operant Conditioning

2

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)

a. Conditioned Stimulus

b. Unconditioned Response

c. Conditioned Response

d. Unconditioned Response

c. Conditioned Response

3

Dan and Joel, both 4 years old, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

a. Immediate Reinforcement

b. Classical Conditioning

c. Delayed Reinforcement

d. Observational Learning

d. Observational Learning

4

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _____________ is to ____________.

a. Positive Reinforcer, Negative Reinforcer

b. Primary Reinforcer, Delayed Reinforcer

c. Immediate Reinforcer, Delayed Reinforcer

d. Reinforcement, Punishment

a. Positive Reinforcer, Negative Reinforcer

5

Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid triggers an immune response. This best illustrates

a. Classical Conditioning

b. Observational Learning

c. Operant Conditioning

d. Cognitive Learning

a. Classical Conditioning

6

When evidence for memory is based on how long it takes to master information a second time in comparison to how long it took the first time, this is called?

a. Recognition

b. Reignition

c. Relearning

d. Recall

c. Relearning

7

On the first day of kindergarten, Mandy tells her class about her pet frog. The other kids laugh and say she is gross. Julie decides not to tell the class about her pet spider at all, and Mandy won't answer any of the teacher's questions about her frog.

What type of learning has been learned from Mandy's perspective?

a. Cranial Insertion

b. Operant Conditioning

c. Observational Learning

d. Classical Conditioning

b. Operant Conditioning

8

On the first day of kindergarten, Mandy tells her class about her pet frog. The other kids laugh and say she is gross. Julie decides not to tell the class about her pet spider at all, and Mandy won't answer any of the teacher's questions about her frog.

What type of learning has occurred from Julie's perspective?

a. Cranial Insertion

b. Operant Conditioning

c. Observational Learning

d. Classical Conditioning

c. Observational Learning

9

On the first day of kindergarten, Mandy tells her class about her pet frog. The other kids laugh and say she is gross. Julie decides not to tell the class about her pet spider at all, and Mandy won't answer any of the teacher's questions about her frog.

From Julie's perspective, Mandy is a(n)

a. Model

b. Conditioned Stimulus

c. Mental Schema

d. Unconditioned response

a. Model

10

On the first day of kindergarten, Mandy tells her class about her pet frog. The other kids laugh and say she is gross. Julie decides not to tell the class about her pet spider at all, and Mandy won't answer any of the teacher's questions about her frog.

The laughing is most likely serving as a(n)

a. Unconditioned Stimulus

b. Positive Reinforcer

c. Positive Punisher

d. Negative Reinforcer

c. Positive Punisher

11

Innately satisfying stimuli that satisfy biological needs are called ________.

a. Continuous

b. Fixed

c. Primary

d. Positve

c. Primary

12

If a bell causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the bell is a(n)

a. Unconditioned Stimulus

b. Immediate Reinforcer

c. Primary Reinforcer

d. Conditioned Stimulus

d. Conditioned Stimulus

13

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:

a. Generalization

b. Shaping

c. Latent Learning

d. Secondary Reinforcement

e. Spontaneous Recovery

a. Generalization

14

Human memory is

a. Easily Distorted

b. An Incomplete Record

c. All of these

d. Shaped By Attention

c. All of these (Easily distorted, An incomplete record, Shaped by attention)

15

The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:

a. Skinner

b. Pavlov

c. Bandura

d. Wundt

b. Pavlov

16

What explains always calling your colleague Jack Jones by the name Jim Jones even though Jim Jones was your college roommate?

a. Miss-attribution

b. Proactive Interference

c. Intrusion

d. Retroactive Interference

b. Proactive Interference

17

_________ is best known for working with operant conditioning while _________ is associated with the concepts of observational learning.

a. Skinner; Bandura

b. Bandura; Skinner

c. Freud; Bandura

d. Skinner; Pavlov

a. Skinner; Bandura

18

Our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others best illustrates:

a. Respondent Behavior

b. Prosocial Behavior

c. Operant Conditioning

d. Observational Learning

d. Observational Learning

19

Donna is six months old. In the car, an air conditioner vent is pointed at her face. Whenever the car starts, air blows into her eyes 2 seconds after the key is turned. Air blowing in Donna's eyes makes her blink automatically. After 3 weeks of riding in the car, Donna's eyes blink automatically when she hears the sound of the key turning.

The sound of the key turning is a(n)

a. Conditioned Stimulus

b. Negative Reinforcer

c. Unconditioned Stimulus

d. Positive Reinforcer

a. Conditioned Stimulus

20

Donna is six months old. In the car, an air conditioner vent is pointed at her face. Whenever the car starts, air blows into her eyes 2 seconds after the key is turned. Air blowing in Donna's eyes makes her blink automatically. After 3 weeks of riding in the car, Donna's eyes blink automatically when she hears the sound of the key turning.

The air blowing in Donna's face is a(n)

a. Positive Punisher

b. Unconditioned Stimulus

c. Negative Punisher

d. Conditioned Stimulus

b. Unconditioned Stimulus

21

Donna is six months old. In the car, an air conditioner vent is pointed at her face. Whenever the car starts, air blows into her eyes 2 seconds after the key is turned. Air blowing in Donna's eyes makes her blink automatically. After 3 weeks of riding in the car, Donna's eyes blink automatically when she hears the sound of the key turning.

Donna blinking is a(n)

a. Operant Behavior

b. Conditioned Response

c. Unconditioned Response

d. There is not enough information to decide

d. There is not enough information to decide

22

Donna is six months old. In the car, an air conditioner vent is pointed at her face. Whenever the car starts, air blows into her eyes 2 seconds after the key is turned. Air blowing in Donna's eyes makes her blink automatically. After 3 weeks of riding in the car, Donna's eyes blink automatically when she hears the sound of the key turning.

This scenario demonstrates

a. Operant Conditioning

b. Social Conditioning

c. Classical Conditioning

d. Cognitive Development

c. Classical Conditioning

23

Memory failure that results from our brain filling in gaps and from our own biases is

a. Absent Mindedness

b. Distortion

c. Intrusion

d. Forgetting

b. Distortion

24

At first it is easiest to remember information studied ____ but later it is easier to remember information studied _____.

a. In the middle; first

b. Last; in the middle

c. Last; First

d. First; Last

c. Last; First

25

When activating memories leads to an indirect activation of a related memory it is called

a. Profusing

b. Conditioning

c. Priming

d. Expediting

c. Priming

26

When you can't stop thinking of something that is

a. Persistence

b. Transience

c. Insertion

d. Cohesion

a. Persistence

27

It is more efficient to study

a. In large single blocks

b. Only the day before the exam

c. In small blocks spread over several days or weeks

d. All of these are equal

c. In small blocks spread over several days or weeks

28

Being able to describe a bicycle is ________, but being able to ride a bicycle is ______.

a. Procedural Memory; declarative memory

b. Implicit Memory; explicit memory

c. Explicit memory; implicit memory

d. Short term memory; long term memory

c. Explicit memory; implicit memory

29

Which of the following is false?

a. Not everything we have experienced is in our long term memories

b. Short term memory capacity is 7+/- 2 chunks

c. Stress increases accurate memory of normal events

d. Capacity and duration of long term memory are both indefinite

c. Stress increases accurate memory of normal events

30

Which part of memory has the shortest duration?

a. Sensory

b. Small

c. Long Term

d. Short Term

a. Sensory

31

Operant Conditioning

Organisms associate their own actions with consequences. Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishers often decrease. Behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli is caller operant behavior

32

Conditioned Response (CR)

Salvation in response to a tone, however, is learned. Because it is conditional upon the dog's associating the tone and the food.

In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.

33

Neutral Stimuli (NS)

Events the dogs could see or hear but did not associate with food.

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

34

Unconditioned Response (UR)

A dog does not learn to salivate in response to food in its mouth. Food in the mouth automatically, unconditionally, triggers a dog's salivary reflex. So the drooling is the UR.

In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salvation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)

35

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

The dog food is the US

A stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response (UR)

36

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

The stimulus that used to be neutral (in this case, a previously meaningless tone that now triggers that salivation) is the CS

An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus(US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)

37

Generalization

The tendency to respond likewise to stimuli similar to the Conditioned Stimuli

38

Reinforcement

Any event that strengthens (increases frequency of) a preceding response.

39

Shaping

Gradually guiding the subjects actions toward the desired behavior.

40

Positive Reinforcement

Strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response.

example: pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints your house.

41

Negative Reinforcement

Strengthens a response by reducing a removing something negative

example: Take painkillers to end the pain; fasten seatbelt to end loud beeping noise

42

Primary Reinforcers

are unlearned, getting food when hungry or having a painful headache go away

43

Conditioned Reinforcers

Get their power through learned association with primary reinforcers

44

Punishment

Any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior

45

Negative Punishment

withdraw of a rewarding stimulus

46

Positive Punishment

administering an aversive stimulus

47

Latent Learning

learn from experience

48

Intrinsic Motivation

The desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.

49

Extrinsic Motivation

Behaving a certain ways to gain external rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

50

Observational Learning

learn without direct experience

51

Modeling

learn native languages and various other specific behaviors by observing and imitating others

Attractiveness , meaning being okay/wanting to trade places with the model and Similarity, meaning orientation and size and age.

52

Mirror Neurons

frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.

53

Prosocial Behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior

54

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

55

Recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test.

56

Recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.

57

Relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

58

Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning.

59

Storage

The retention of encoded information over time.

60

Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage.

61

Sensory Memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

62

Short-Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

63

Long-Term Memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

64

Working Memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

65

Explicit Memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare".

66

Implicit Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection.

67

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

68

Spacing Effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

69

Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.

70

Flashbulb Memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

71

Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular association in memory.

72

Learning

The process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

73

Associative Learning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning)

74

Stimulus

Any event or situation that evokes a response.

75

Cognitive Learning

The Acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.

76

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.

77

Albert Bandura

The Bobo Doll experiment, modeling

78

B.F. Skinner

Behavorists, rewarded behavior, rat box experiment

79

Pavlov

The dog experiement, stimulus and responses.