Chapter 2 Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth Flashcards
How many chromosomes are found in the organism that results from the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell?
How many of the pairs of chromosomes in normal human cells are considered autosomes?
Which of the following is NOT one of the chemical compounds that makes up a strand of DNA?
Kimberley is having a discussion with her friend Aasta about the genetic determinants of development. They cannot come to an agreement on what the functional units of heredity are. If they asked you to help them figure this out, what would you say?
a. The most functional units of heredity are chromosomes.
b. The most functional units of heredity are genes.
c. The most functional units of heredity are ribosomes.
d. The most functional units of heredity are nucleotides.
When Chester is conceived by his parents, he has the genetic instructions to grow up to be 6’1’’ tall. During his childhood, however, he develops a digestive illness that significantly limits the amount of food he can eat, and he regularly fails to get enough vitamins in his diet. As a result, he grows up to be 5’11’’ tall. In this example, a height of 6’1’’ is Chester’s ________ and a height of 5’11’’ is Chester’s ________.
a. phenotype; genotype
b. chromotype; nucleotype
c. nucleotype; chromotype
d. genotype; phenotype
Genotype is to phenotype as
a. homozygous is to heterozygous.
b. nurture is to nature.
c. DNA is to RNA.
d. genetic pattern is to physical, behavioral, and psychological features.
Kendrie suffers from sickle cell anemia. She is not just a carrier of the illness, but she actually has the disease itself. Which of the following best describes Kendrie’s red blood cell alleles?
Maricella was born several days ago, and her pediatrician has observed that she has almond-shaped eyes and a fold over her eyelids. In addition, her head, neck, and nose are smaller than other babies of her birth weight. With which of the following conditions would Maricella most likely be diagnosed?
a. Down syndrome
b. Turner’s syndrome
c. Kleinfelter’s syndrome
Maricella was born several days ago, and her pediatrician has observed that she has almond-shaped eyes and a fold over her eyelids. In addition, her head, neck, and nose are smaller than other babies of her birth weight. It is most likely that Maricella has an extra of the _____ pair of chromosomes.
a. 4 th
b. 9 th
Which maternal characteristic is most strongly associated with giving birth to a baby with Down syndrome?
a. low levels of intelligence in the mother
b. consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
c. higher maternal age
d. exposure to lead or mercury by the baby immediately after birth
David and Katie have always been close. In fact, they are so close that they shared the womb when their mother was pregnant with them. Given the information that you have already been given in this question, which of the following can you state conclusively?
a. David and Katie are monozygotic twins.
b. David and Katie are conjoined twins.
c. David and Katie are dizygotic twins.
d. David and Katie share 25% of their genotype.
Monozygotic is to ________ as dizygotic is to ________.
a. heterozygous; homozygous
b. identical; fraternal
c. homozygous; heterozygous
d. fraternal; identical
________ refers to the process of deliberately seeking environments that fit one’s heredity.
d. Polygenic inheritance
Which of the following properties is widely accepted with regard to the relationship between genes and behaviors?
a. Genes actually change and break down as we age, which is why our actions change so dramatically as we get older.
b. Environmental influences typically make children within the family very similar to each other.
c. Genes cannot influence the kind of environment to which a person is exposed.
d. Heredity and environment interact dynamically throughout development
The time between conception and birth is called the ________ period.
Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of pregnancy?
a. period of the embryo, period of the fetus, period of the zygote
b. period of the zygote, period of the embryo, period of the fetus
c. period of the fetus, period of the zygote, period of the embryo
d. period of the embryo, period of the zygote, period of the fetus
Out of the 200–500 million sperm cells that are released during an ejaculation, only ________ complete the short journey up the Fallopian tubes to where an egg is waiting to be fertilized.
c. a few hundred
d. a few thousand
Jeanette and her husband Eric have recently engaged in sexual intercourse. After this activity was completed, an egg in Jeanette’s Fallopian tube was fertilized by a sperm cell that was released by Eric. The result is a(n) ________, which marks the beginning of pregnancy.
Despite the fact that a human female has a normal pregnancy duration (or gestational period) of 38 weeks, people often refer to pregnancy as a 40-week event. Why is this?
a. Because the heightened influence of teratogens in the world today has actually extended the duration of pregnancy from conception to delivery.
b. Because pregnancy usually begins two weeks after a woman’s menstrual period, and that is the time from which the beginning of pregnancy is measured.
c. Because the duration of pregnancy actually gets longer as a woman ages, and it ranges from 38 to 42 weeks. 40 weeks is the average, so that is what people say.
d. Because physicians want to allow for a two-week “window” at the end of the pregnancy so that women do not become concerned if they have not delivered by the end of the 38th week.
Once a zygote implants itself in the uterine lining, it officially becomes a(n) ________.
d. germ disc
Pregnant Patty’s body is currently experiencing the event that triggers hormonal changes that will prevent further menstruation. This event is called
Which of the following structures eventually develops into a baby?
a. the amniotic sac
b. the germ disc
c. the trophoblast
d. the blastocyst
The ________ is a structure that contains veins and arteries and connects a developing child to the placenta.
a. umbilical cord
c. germ disc
Of the three prenatal stages of development which is by far the longest?
a. the period of the zygote
b. the period of the embryo
c. the period of the fetus
d. the period of the neonate
Mel is at the obstetrician’s office with his girlfriend Denise, who is pregnant with their child. They have just started the ninth week of the pregnancy, and the doctor explains to them that the unborn child’s brain has developed distinct structures and is already beginning to regulate certain body functions. Based on what you know about prenatal development, you know that the period of the ________ has just begun.
Marsha’s doctor informs her that her child is just entering the longest period of prenatal development. About how long has Marsha been carrying her unborn child?
a. 1 day
b. 3 weeks
c. 9 weeks
d. 28 weeks
Your authors point out that teenage women have a greater chance of having problems during their pregnancy, labor, and delivery than pregnant women in their 20s. They suggest that this is mainly because
a. pregnant teenagers are more likely to be economically disadvantaged and lack good prenatal care.
b. pregnant teenagers are more likely to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy.
c. pregnant teenagers are more likely to drink alcohol during pregnancy.
d. pregnant teenagers are less likely to get adequate sleep and rest during pregnancy.
In general, pregnancies are most likely to proceed normally when the mother is between the ages of ________ years.
a. 18 and 25
b. 21 and 25
c. 21 and 30
d. 20 and 35
Alissa is a 41-year-old, married, professional woman who has just found out that she is pregnant with her third child. According to your textbook, which of the following conditions is her baby at higher risk of due to Alissa’s age?
a. Down syndrome
d. Von Recklinghausen disease (neurofibromatosis)
Any agent that interferes with normal prenatal development is a(n) ________.
Felicia is at the end of her pregnancy, and she is now in labor. She has been having contractions for about 18 hours, and her cervix is slowly dilating to approximately 10 centimeters. Which stage of labor is Felicia currently in?
a. Stage one
b. Stage two
c. Stage three
d. Stage four
Roz is in the process of giving birth to her daughter. The baby has made its way from the uterus into the vagina, and is currently being expelled from Roz’s body as Roz contracts her abdominal muscles. In which stage of labor is Roz?
a. Stage one
b. Stage two
c. Stage three
d. Stage four
Which of the stages of labor is the briefest, and involves only a few “pushes” to expel the placenta?
a. Stage nine
b. Stage seven
c. Stage five
d. Stage three
Why would it be fair to say that physicians Grantly Dick-Read and Ferdinand Lamaze revolutionized approaches to childbirth?
a. Because they advocated for a more natural approach to childbirth rather than viewing it as a “medical event.”
b. Because together they developed the epidural procedure, which significantly reduced a woman’s pain during labor.
c. Because they promoted the use of midwives and doulas over physicians and nurses to assist mothers in labor
d. Because they developed the “fetal monitor,” which allowed for physicians to note when a child was in distress during labor.
Wilma is afraid of the pain involved in delivering her baby. Are childbirth classes likely to help her?
a. Yes, because women who take these courses may experience less tension, and thus may have less pain during the delivery.
b. Yes, because women who take these courses qualify for painkilling medications they would not usually receive.
c. No, because childbirth courses only make people more knowledgeable about the birthing process and can have no effect on pain.
d. No, because individuals who know most about the birthing process experience the most pain.
Which of the following is NOT one of the physical changes that a woman is likely to experience after pregnancy?
a. Her breasts may begin to produce milk.
b. Her uterus becomes smaller.
c. Her levels of female hormones may drop.
d. Her control of her bowels may become compromised.
The age of ________ is defined as the age at which a fetus can survive if it must be born because most of its bodily systems function adequately. It typically occurs 22 to 28 weeks into the pregnancy.
a. zygotic intent
Why is it that the United States has among the highest rates of infant mortality despite having such widely available medical care?
a. Because the United States does not mandate prenatal testing for all pregnant women.
b. Because the United States has more babies with low birth weight than virtually all other developed nations.
c. Because the United States has the highest rate of pregnant women who abuse alcohol and drugs during their pregnancy.
d. Because the United States has the greatest level of toxins in its water and food supplies, thus leading to more prenatal complications.
In order for a child to be described as having low birth weight, (s)he would have to weigh:
a. less than 2,500 grams but more than 1,500 grams.
b. less than 1,500 grams but more than 1,000 grams.
c. less than 3,000 grams but more than 2,000 grams.
d. less than 1,000 grams but more than 500 grams.
Infant mortality rate is defined as the percentage of infants who die
a. before birth.
b. during birth.
c. before their first birthday
d. before their second birthday
What was the most critical lesson about teratogens learned from studies on the use of the drug DES by pregnant women?
a. Sometimes what appear to be teratogens actually are harmless drugs.
b. Infants in the late fetal period appear to be the most at risk for impact from drug-related teratogens.
c. Sometimes the effects of teratogens are not apparent until long after exposure.
d. Females appear to be at much greater risk from teratogens.
In which type of prenatal testing is a grainy picture of the fetus generated that allows for identification of the child’s position and, at a certain point, its sex?
b. chorionic villus sampling
d. transvaginal magnetic resonance imaging
Which of the following is a relative limitation of the use of an ultrasound?
a. It requires an instrument so large that is impractical to have in most physicians’ offices.
b. It is notoriously unreliable at accurately identifying the sex of the child prior to birth.
c. It carries a 1% chance of inducing a miscarriage.
d. It gives a very grainy picture that takes an expert’s eyes to interpret.
How many stages of labor are there?
Roughly ________ of new mothers experience the “baby blues,” which may involve feelings of irritation and resentment, accompanied by crying spells.
For 10 to 15% of new mothers, the baby blues extends into months of irritability, feelings of low self-worth and apathy, and sleep and appetite disturbances. This condition, called postpartum ________, can influence a child’s development if it persists.
a. occurs in about 50 percent of new mothers.
b. is more common following planned pregnancies than unplanned pregnancies.
c. is a purely psychological phenomenon (i.e., has no physiological basis).
d. may be reduced via breast-feeding.
While Jonah was making his way through his mother’s birth canal, his umbilical cord got wrapped around his neck. Thankfully this situation was resolved before Jonah developed _______, which would have involved a disruption of oxygenated blood to his brain.
b. cerebral atrophy
Which of the following conditions, seen in pregnant women, involves high blood pressure, proteins in the urine, and swelling in the extremities due to fluid retention?
a. cephalopelvic disproportion
c. irregular position
d. prolapsed umbilical cord
Nora was born just after the 32nd week of pregnancy. According to your authors, she would be referred to as a ________ baby.
b. low birth weight
When a child is conceived, the parents pass along 46 genes, two of which decide whether the baby will be a boy or a girl.
If a dominant gene meets up with a recessive gene, the traits that are contained in the dominant gene will ultimately be expressed.
Only a single sperm cell can successfully make the journey up a woman’s Fallopian tube to an unfertilized egg.
Once a zygote implants itself in the lining of the uterus, it becomes a fetus.
The age of viability for a fetus normally occurs between 22 and 28 weeks after conception.
During pregnancy, it is necessary for the mother to eat 10% to 20% more than regular in order to adequately provide for the needs of her unborn child.
The research is now clear, and states that a pregnant woman may safely consume up to three glasses of red wine a week. Alternately, she may have the equivalent of four ounces of “hard liquor” or two standard sized cans or bottles of beer. These small amounts of alcohol have been found to be safe for the unborn child.
The least invasive form of prenatal screening discussed in your textbook is the use of an ultrasound.
One of the difficulties associated with the use of anesthesia during childbirth is that anesthetized mothers cannot use their abdominal muscles to push the baby through the birth canal.
A child who weighs less than 1,000 grams at birth would be described as being a “low birth weight” baby.
A group of compounds that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions for development is a(n) _______.
Monozygotic twins are more commonly referred to as ________ twins, while dizygotic twins are known as ________ twins.
The process of deliberately seeking environments that are consistent with one’s heredity is called ________.
The sac in which an embryo rests during the second stage of prenatal development is called the ________.
During the period of the ________, the longest stage of prenatal development, the child reaches the age of viability. After this point in the pregnancy, the child would be capable of surviving outside of the mother’s body.
Increased maternal age brings a heightened risk of certain difficulties, both with the pregnancy and for the child. Specifically, when the mother is pregnant after the age of 40 there is an enhanced risk of the child being born with ________.
Pregnant women who regularly consume quantities of alcoholic beverages may give birth to babies with ________ (FASD).
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
A child who is born at a weight of less than 100 grams would be referred to as having ________ birth weight.
________ is the most important factor in preventing low birth weight babies, which in turn can reduce the number of infants who die prior to their first birthday.
A reproductive technique that is used over 140,000 times and produces more than 55,000 babies each year in the United States is ________.