Anatomy & Physiology- Ch: 1
The goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing environment
from conception to death
processes within and between cells
functions of specific organs
functions of an organ system
effects of diseases
hands at sides, palms forward
lying down, face up
lying down, face down
back of knee
or front of elbow
or great toe
or back of elbow
or back of knee
or heal of foot
or sole of foot
A _______________, section separates anterior and posterior portions of the body.
frontal, or coronal
____________ usually refers to sections passing through the skull.
Frontal or coronal plane
A _______________ separates right and left portions.
misses the midline. It
separates the body into
unequal right and left sides.
A _____________________ section separates superior and inferior
portions of the body.
transverse, or cross,
Essential Functions of ________________:
- Protect organs from accidental shocks
- Permit changes in size and shape of internal organs
Toward the midline
_____________________: lines the internal body wall
_____________________: covers the organs
The _____________ receives the stimulus
The _____________ processes the signal and sends instructions
The _____________ carries out instructions
____________ Is the study of tissues and their structures.
Humans have ____ organ systems.
Skin, hair, sweat glands, & nails belong to the ________________ organ system.
Protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information are functions to _________________ organ systems.
Bone, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrow belong to the _____________ organ system.
Provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, and forms blood cells are functions to the _________________ organ system.
Skeletal muscles and associated tendons belong to the _______________ organ system.
Provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, generates heat that maintains body temperature are functions to the ___________________ organ system.
Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs belong to the _______________ organ system.
Directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, and provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions are functions of the __________________.
Pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads belong to the _______________ system.
Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development are functions of the ____________________.
Heart, blood, and blood vessels belong to the _____________________ system.
Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials; Didtributes heat and assists in control of body temperature are functions of the ___________________ .
Spleen, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Tonsils are apart of the __________________ system.
Defends against infection and disease, and Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream are functions to the _______________.
Nasal cavities, Sinuses, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, and Alveoli belong to the ___________________ system.
Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs), Provides oxygen to bloodstream, Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, Produces sounds for communication are functions of the ________________________.
Teeth, Tongue, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas are part of the _________________ system
Processes and digests food, Absorbs and conserves water, Absorbs nutrients, and Stores energy reserves are functions of the ______________________.
Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra belong to the _________________ system.
Excretes waste products from the blood, Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, and Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH are functions of the _________________.
_____________ is the automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change.
_______ is the responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems
Below; at a lower level; toward the feet
Above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the head)
What is 1?
Right hypochondriac region
What is 2?
Right lumbar region
What is 3?
Right inguinal region
What is 4?
What is 5?
What is 6?
Hypogastric (pubic) region
The ________________ moves the body away from homeostasis and is used to speed up the processes.
Front view or ________________.
anything close to the skin
Deep or _______________.
Bilateral means _______________________.
Both sides of the body
two on the same side
The right arm and the right leg are ______________________.
on the opposite side
If you have a clot in the right side of the brain the left side will be paralyzed. This is an example of ___________________.
Fingers are _____________ to the wrist.
The shoulder is ________________ to the wrist.
The Scapula is located ______________ to the rib cage.
The umbilicus is on the ____________ surface of the trunk.
_______________ is used to visualize internal organization and structure.
Thoracic, mammary, abdominal, and umbilical are all apart of the ______________.
The _____________ is in the Left Hypochondriac region
The ______________ & ______________ are in the Epigastric region
The ______________ is in the Hypogastric region.
Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom) is divided by the diaphragm into the ______________ & _______________
Thoracic cavity & Abdominopelvic cavity
______________________ line body cavities and cover organs
Right and left ____________________ contain right and left lungs.
Upper portion filled with blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus in the Thoracic Cavity is the __________________.
The ____________ is located within the pericardial cavity.
The muscular diaphragm subdivides the body cavities into a superior ________________ and an inferior _______________________.
thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity
Peritoneal cavity is within the _________________ cavity
Parietal peritoneum (lines the internal body wall) and Visceral peritoneum (covers the organs) in the ______________________.
_________________ space contain organs that are not completely covered by cavity.
Kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, pancreas, duodenum (2nd part), aorta, Inferior vena cava, ascending and descending colon, lower part of the rectum are ______________________.
The _______________ is the superior portion from diaphragm to top of pelvic bones and contains digestive organs.
The _______________ is the inferior portion within pelvic bones and contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder
The internal organs that are enclosed by cavities are known as _____________.
A large tissue mass:
A delicate ____________ membrane lines the walls of these internal cavities and covers the surfaces of the enclosed viscera.
The portion of a serous membrane that directly covers a visceral organ is called the ________________.
The opposing layer that lines the inner surface of the body wall or chamber is called the _______________.
The ___________ and ______________ membranes are one membrane
The Parietal serosa folds back onto itself, forming the _________________.
Because the moist parietal and visceral sersae are usually in close contact, the body cavities are called _________________.
The serous membrane lining a pleural cavity is called a __________.
The ______________ covers the outer surface of the lung, and the ________________ covers the mediastinal surface and the inner body wall.
visceral pleura, parietal pleura
The _____________ would enclose the heart organ.
The _____________ would enclose the small and large intestine
The _______________ would enclose the lungs.
The ____________ would enclose the kidneys.
abdominal (or abdominopelvic) cavity
The mediastinum is the region between the ___________.
two pleural cavities
The two major cavities of the trunk are the _______________ and ___________________.
Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Which sectional plane could divide the body so that the face remains intact?
Frontal (coronal) plane
______________ Is the study of body structures
- Atoms are the smallest chemical units
- Molecules are a group of atoms working together
Chemical (or Molecular) Level
- Cells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together
A ____________ is a group of similar cells working together
An ___________ is a group of different tissues working together
An ________________ is a group of organs working together