Anatomy & Physiology- Ch: 1

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1

Homeostasis

The goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing environment

2

Surface anatomy:

exterior features

3

Regional anatomy:

body areas

4

Systemic anatomy:

organ systems

5

Clinical anatomy:

medical specialties

6

Developmental anatomy:

from conception to death

7

Cell physiology:

processes within and between cells

8

Organ physiology:

functions of specific organs

9

Systemic physiology:

functions of an organ system

10

Pathological physiology:

effects of diseases

11

Anatomical position:

hands at sides, palms forward

12

Supine:

lying down, face up

13

Prone:

lying down, face down

14

Abdominopelvic quadrants

card image
15

Popliteal

back of knee

16

Otic

or ear

17

Cephalic

or head

18

Mental

or chin

19

Axillary

or armpit

20

Brachial

or arm

21

Antecubital

or front of elbow

22

Buccal

or cheek

23

Cervical

or neck

24

Antebrachial

or forearm

25

Pollex

or thumb

26

Patellar

or kneecap

27

Crural

or leg

28

Tarsal

or ankle

29

Hallux

or great toe

30

Pedal

or foot

31

Inguinal

or groin

32

Femoral

or thigh

33

Acromial

or shoulder

34

Olecranal

or back of elbow

35

Lumbar

or loin

36

Popliteal

or back of knee

37

Sural

or calf

38

Calcaneal

or heal of foot

39

Plantar

or sole of foot

40
card image

Abdominopelvic regions.

41

A _______________, section separates anterior and posterior portions of the body.

frontal, or coronal

42

____________ usually refers to sections passing through the skull.

Coronal

43
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Frontal or coronal plane

44
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Midsagittal plane

45

A _______________ separates right and left portions.

sagittal section

46

A ___________________
misses the midline. It
separates the body into
unequal right and left sides.

parasagittal section

47
card image

Transverse plane

48

A _____________________ section separates superior and inferior

portions of the body.

transverse, or cross,

49

Essential Functions of ________________:

    1. Protect organs from accidental shocks
    2. Permit changes in size and shape of internal organs

Body Cavities

50

Toward the midline

Medial

51

_____________________: lines the internal body wall

Parietal peritoneum

52

_____________________: covers the organs

Visceral peritoneum

53

The _____________ receives the stimulus

Receptor

54

The _____________ processes the signal and sends instructions

Control Center

55

The _____________ carries out instructions

Effector

56

____________ Is the study of tissues and their structures.

Histology

57

Humans have ____ organ systems.

11

58

Skin, hair, sweat glands, & nails belong to the ________________ organ system.

Integumentary

59

Protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information are functions to _________________ organ systems.

Integumentary

60

Bone, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrow belong to the _____________ organ system.

Skeletal

61

Provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, and forms blood cells are functions to the _________________ organ system.

Skeletal

62

Skeletal muscles and associated tendons belong to the _______________ organ system.

Muscular

63

Provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, generates heat that maintains body temperature are functions to the ___________________ organ system.

Muscular

64

Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs belong to the _______________ organ system.

Nervous

65

Directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, and provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions are functions of the __________________.

Nervous system

66

Pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads belong to the _______________ system.

Endocrine

67

Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development are functions of the ____________________.

Endocrine system

68

Heart, blood, and blood vessels belong to the _____________________ system.

Cardiovascular

69

Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials; Didtributes heat and assists in control of body temperature are functions of the ___________________ .

Cardiovascular system

70

Spleen, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Tonsils are apart of the __________________ system.

Lymphatic

71

Defends against infection and disease, and Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream are functions to the _______________.

Lymphatic system

72

Nasal cavities, Sinuses, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, and Alveoli belong to the ___________________ system.

Respiratory

73

Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs), Provides oxygen to bloodstream, Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, Produces sounds for communication are functions of the ________________________.

Respiratory System

74

Teeth, Tongue, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas are part of the _________________ system

Digestive

75

Processes and digests food, Absorbs and conserves water, Absorbs nutrients, and Stores energy reserves are functions of the ______________________.

Digestive system

76

Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra belong to the _________________ system.

Urinary

77

Excretes waste products from the blood, Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, and Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH are functions of the _________________.

Urinary system

78

_____________ is the automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change.

Autoregulation (intrinsic)

79

_______ is the responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems

Extrinsic regulation

80

Below; at a lower level; toward the feet

Inferior

81

Above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the head)

Superior

82
card image

What is 1?

Right hypochondriac region

83
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What is 2?

Right lumbar region

84
card image

What is 3?

Right inguinal region

85
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What is 4?

Epigastric region

86
card image

What is 5?

Umbilical region

87
card image

What is 6?

Hypogastric (pubic) region

88

Frontal

or forehead

89

The ________________ moves the body away from homeostasis and is used to speed up the processes.

Positive Feedback

90

Below=

Inferior

91

Below=

Caudal

92

Front view or ________________.

Ventral

93

Superficial is....

anything close to the skin

94

Deep or _______________.

Visceral

95

Bilateral means _______________________.

Both sides of the body

96

Dorsal

or back

97

Gluteal

or buttock

98

Ipsilateral

two on the same side

99

The right arm and the right leg are ______________________.

Ipsilateral

100

Contralateral

on the opposite side

101

If you have a clot in the right side of the brain the left side will be paralyzed. This is an example of ___________________.

Contralateral

102

Fingers are _____________ to the wrist.

Distal

103

The shoulder is ________________ to the wrist.

Proximal

104

The Scapula is located ______________ to the rib cage.

Posterior

105

The umbilicus is on the ____________ surface of the trunk.

Anterior

106

_______________ is used to visualize internal organization and structure.

Sectional Anatomy

107

Thoracic, mammary, abdominal, and umbilical are all apart of the ______________.

Trunk

108

The _____________ is in the Left Hypochondriac region

Speen

109

The ______________ & ______________ are in the Epigastric region

Liver, stomach

110

The ______________ is in the Hypogastric region.

Urinary Bladder

111

Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom) is divided by the diaphragm into the ______________ & _______________

Thoracic cavity & Abdominopelvic cavity

112

______________________ line body cavities and cover organs

Serous Membranes

113

Right and left ____________________ contain right and left lungs.

pleural cavities

114

Upper portion filled with blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus in the Thoracic Cavity is the __________________.

Mediastinum

115

The ____________ is located within the pericardial cavity.

heart

116

The muscular diaphragm subdivides the body cavities into a superior ________________ and an inferior _______________________.

thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity

117

Peritoneal cavity is within the _________________ cavity

abdominopelvic

118

Parietal peritoneum (lines the internal body wall) and Visceral peritoneum (covers the organs) in the ______________________.

Peritoneal cavity

119

_________________ space contain organs that are not completely covered by cavity.

Retroperitoneal

120

Kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, pancreas, duodenum (2nd part), aorta, Inferior vena cava, ascending and descending colon, lower part of the rectum are ______________________.

Retroperitoneal organs

121

The _______________ is the superior portion from diaphragm to top of pelvic bones and contains digestive organs.

Abdominal cavity

122

The _______________ is the inferior portion within pelvic bones and contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder

Pelvic cavity

123

The internal organs that are enclosed by cavities are known as _____________.

Viscera

124

A large tissue mass:

mediastinum

125

A delicate ____________ membrane lines the walls of these internal cavities and covers the surfaces of the enclosed viscera.

serous

126

The portion of a serous membrane that directly covers a visceral organ is called the ________________.

visceral serosa

127

The opposing layer that lines the inner surface of the body wall or chamber is called the _______________.

parietal serosa

128

The ___________ and ______________ membranes are one membrane

Parietal, Visceral

129

The Parietal serosa folds back onto itself, forming the _________________.

visceral serosa

130

Because the moist parietal and visceral sersae are usually in close contact, the body cavities are called _________________.

potentail spaces

131

The serous membrane lining a pleural cavity is called a __________.

pleura

132

The ______________ covers the outer surface of the lung, and the ________________ covers the mediastinal surface and the inner body wall.

visceral pleura, parietal pleura

133

The _____________ would enclose the heart organ.

Pericardial Cavity

134

The _____________ would enclose the small and large intestine

peritoneal cavity

135

The _______________ would enclose the lungs.

pleural cavity

136

The ____________ would enclose the kidneys.

abdominal (or abdominopelvic) cavity

137

The mediastinum is the region between the ___________.

two pleural cavities

138

The two major cavities of the trunk are the _______________ and ___________________.

Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

139

Which sectional plane could divide the body so that the face remains intact?

Frontal (coronal) plane

140

______________ Is the study of body structures

Anatomy

141

The _____________________:

    • Atoms are the smallest chemical units
    • Molecules are a group of atoms working together

Chemical (or Molecular) Level

142

The __________________:

    • Cells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together

Cellular Level

143

A ____________ is a group of similar cells working together

tissue

144

An ___________ is a group of different tissues working together

organ

145

An ________________ is a group of organs working together

organ system