Psychology 100 Quiz 1 Flashcards
The dependent variable depends upon ______.
A. Selective assignment
C. The independent variable
D. The control group
The major component of behaviorism for much of the 20th century was
The founder of behaviorism was
Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on eating an apple and then describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstrating the technique of _______, which is a technique used by investigators of ________.
A. Introspection; humanism
B. Stream of consciousness; functionalism
C. Introspection; structuralism
D. Introspection; Gestalt
E. Stream of consciousness; structuralism
What does correlation tell us?
A. What causes change in a variable
B. The relationship and strength of relationship between two or more variables
C. The order in which variables occur
D. Which variables influence other variables
In researching a report on John Watson, which of the following search terms would yield the best results?
A humanist would give which explanation for aggression?
A. Social conditions give rise to drug use that, in turn, causes aggressive behavior
B. Aggression results from unconscious impulses.
C. Aggression increases when people become frustrated by not being able to meet their goals.
D. Brain abnormalities explain violent behavior in some people
E. Aggression is learned through observing others and through reinforcement.
Dr. Mingus keeps a very detailed record of a series of interviews with an individual who is suffering from a rare brain disorder. This is an example of which research method?
B. Case study
C. Naturalistic observation
The behaviorist emphasis on observable events as the focus of inquiry can be traced to which philosopher?
Ajit is a graduate student in psychology who is conducting research on the effectiveness of two types of therapy in the treatment of phobias. He is at the stage where he uses statistics to analyze the data he has collected to see if his hypothesis is supported by research. What stage of the scientific method is this?
A. Gathering evidence
B. Drawing conclusions
C. Developing a research question
D. Forming a hypothesis
E. Replicating results
A school psychologist would be most likely to
A. Investigate the relationship between childhood obesity and self esteem
B. Make suggestions as to how managers could improve employee morale
C. Help teachers develop new instructional techniques
D. Evaluate a student for placement in a special education program
E. Study how groups affect individuals
The concept of behavior in the definition of psychology incorporates ALL but which of the following?
A. Secretion of the pancreas
C. Making yourself a sandwich
E. Quiet reading
Which research method involves questioning a group of people?
A. Naturalistic observation
B. Experimental method
C. Survey method
D. Laboratory observation
A group of participants that is exposed to the independent variable is called a(n) ____.
A. Random group
B. Control group
C. Experimental group
D. Non-experimental group
Wanda makes an educated, precisely worded guess about the behavior of her friends in a specific situation. In other words, she is ____.
A. Manipulating variables
B. Identifying a moral principle
C. Creating a theory
D. Making a hypothsis
The ethical guideline requiring that information about a research study be disclosed to potential research participants before they participate is referred to as
A. Prior consent
B. Informed consent
C. Informational disclosure
D. Prior approval
E. Ethical approval
As scientists, psychologists have confidence in theories that
A. Are tied to observable evidence
B. Are accepted by the majority of leading scholars
C. Do not rely simply on observation
D. Reveal the true nature of human behavior
E. Have stood the test of time
Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?
A. Titchener brought methods of introspection to the U.S
B. Wundt opened his laboratory in Leipzig.
C. Plato died and interest in the philosophical aspects of psychology died with him.
D. G. Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association
E. William James changed the field’s focus from structuralism to functionalism.
In an experimental study on the effects of sleep deprivation on depression, the number of hours that a participant stays awake is represented by the ____.
A. Control variable
B. Random variable
C. Independent variable
D. Dependent variable
All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT
A. Drawing conclusions
B. Developing a hypothesis
C. Generating a research question
D. Drawing conclusions based on gathering expert opinions
E. Gathering evidence
Which of the following relationships would most likely have the weakest correlation?
A. Amount of snowfall and number of skiers
B. Number of fingers on a person's hand and intelligence
C. Air temperature and number of air conditioners being used
D. A buildings height and weight
E. A school child's age and vocabulary
Dr. Fiennes, a psychological researcher, studies the biological bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects. Fiennes is a(n) ______ psychologist.
A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression
A. Represents anger turned inward
B. Is influenced by genetic factors
C. Can be treated through changes in reinforcement patterns
D. Stems from a sense of purposelessness
E. Is more common among certain groups because of social stresses more prevalent in those groups.
In a study of the effects of various brands of ice cream on weight gain, the type of ice cream consumed represents the
A. Random variable
B. Control variable
C. Independent variable
E. Dependent variable
Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?
Which of the following is an example of random assignment?
A. The annual National Football League player draft
B. The numbers that people play in the lottery
C. Winning numbers in the lottery
D. The Miss America contest
The “third force” in psychology is more formally known as
A. Evolutionary psychology
B. The psychodynamic perspective
C. Social-cognitive theory
D. Humanistic psychology
E. The physiological persepctive
A statistical measure of the association between two variables is called a(n)
A. Control variable
C. Dependent variable
D. Correlation coefficient
E. Independent variable
The ethical code of psychologists is based on all but which of the following ideas?
A. People's dignity and welfare must be respected
B. Determination of ultimate truth outweighs individual cost
C. People have a basic right to make their own decisions
D. Research participants or clients must not be harmed
E. People have a basic right to exercise choice.
Which of the following pioneers of psychology was a therapist?
A method of developing knowledge based on the evaluation of evidence from experiments and careful observation is called the ______ approach.
Dr. Schultze conducts research on the effects of a new drug on obsessive-compulsive disorder. In his study, neither Schultze nor the participants knows who is receiving the active drug and who is receiving the placebo. This example describes
A. Social desirability bias
B. Double-blind study
C. Single-blind study
D. Random sampling
E. A control factor
Humanistic psychologists stress all of the following EXCEPT
A. Being true to oneself
B. Unconscious forces
C. Becoming an authentic person
D. Self-awareness and free will
E. Individuals' abilities to make meaning and purpose in their lives
Which of the following is the most complete definition of psychology?
A. The science of mental processes
B. The science of observable behavior and thoughts
C. The science of behavior and mental processes.
D. The art of behavior and mental processes.
E. The science of behavior.
Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, “I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts.” Her students recognize that Spires describes which school of thought?
The use of the survey method is limited by which types of biases?
A. Method bias and population bias
B. Case study bias and observational bias
C. Random sampling bias and population bias
D. Survey bias and volunteer bias
E. Social desirability bias and volunteer bias
Dr. Wilmington is a social psychologist who studies the topic of love. He goes to a variety of places where couples are found and watches how they interact with each other. Which research method is Dr. Wilmington using for his study?
C. Naturalistic observation
E. Case study
A factor that varies in an experiment is called a
Wundt is to ______ as James is to ______.
A. Behaviorism; Gestalt
B. Structuralism; Gestalt
C. Behaviorism; functionalism
D. Functionalism; psychoanalysis
E. Structuralism; functionalism
In the psychodynamic view, the _____ is an area of the mind that lies beyond the reach of ordinary consciousness.
E. Personal conscious