micro 1 Flashcards


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1

A prokaryotic cell may possess each of the following cellular components EXCEPT

A a nucleus

B a cell wall.

C ribosomes.

D cell membrane.

E flagella.

A

2

A virus measures 100 nm in length. What is its length in μm?A A 10 μm

B 0.001 μm

C 0.01 μm

D 1 μm

E 0.1 μm

E

3

Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of
A) osmotic lysis.
B) inhibition of molecular transport.
C) decreased synthesis of peptidoglycan.
D) plasmolysis.
E) cell shrinkage.

A

4

Based upon the valence numbers of the elements magnesium (2) and hydrogen (1), predict how 16) many covalent bonds would form between these atoms to achieve the full complement of electrons
in their outermost energy shells.

A) one B) two C) Three D) Four

B

5

Biogenesis refers to the

A) development of aseptic technique.
B) spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter.
C) development of life forms from preexisting life forms.
D) germ theory of disease.

C

6

By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?
A) aquaporins
B) simple diffusion
C) active transport
D) extracellular enzymes
E) facilitated diffusion

C

7

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided

A

8

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

A

9

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall has a structure that protects against osmotic lysis?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

C

10

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is a gram-negative cell wall?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

11

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

12

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided

B

13

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall possesses molecules responsible for symptoms associated with infection?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

14

Fimbriae and pili differ in that
A) there are only one or two pili per cell.
B) pili are used for motility.
C) pili are used to transfer DNA.
D) pili are used for transfer of DNA and motility.
E) pili are used for attachment to surfaces.

D

15

Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT
A. biofilm formation.
B. increased virulence.
C. source of nutrition.
D. protection against dehydration.
E. binary fission.

E

16

Identify the following reaction: Glucose + Fructose → Sucrose + Water
A) Dehydration synthesis reaction
B) Hydrolysis reaction
C) Exchange reaction
D) Reversible reaction
E) Ionic reaction

A

17

Identify the following reaction: Lactose + H2O → Glucose + Galactose
A) Dehydration synthesis reaction
B) Hydrolysis reaction
C) Exchange reaction
D) Reversible reaction
E) Ionic reaction

B

18

Identify the following reaction: HCl + NaHCO3 → NaCl + H2CO3
A) Dehydration synthesis reaction
B) Hydrolysis reaction
C) Exchange reaction
D) Reversible reaction
E) Ionic reaction

C

19

If you were setting up an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation in a liquid medium, which of the following would be essential to the experiment?

a. adding carbon dioxide to the liquid
b. adding antibiotics to the liquid
c. supplying the liquid with nutrients
d. using a sterile liquid and eliminating exposure to microorganisms
e. starting with a liquid that contains microorganisms

D

20

In the name Staphylococcus aureus, aureus is the

a. species
b. family name
c. domain name
d. genus
e. kingdom

A

21

The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is to

A) remove the simple stain.
B) make the bacterial cells larger.
C) make the flagella visible.
D) prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells.
E) make gram-negative cells visible.

D

22

Simple staining is often necessary to improve contrast in which microscope?

A) compound light microscope
B) phase-contrast microscope
C) darkfield microscope
D) fluorescence microscope
E) electron microscope

A

23

What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the H2O molecule?
a. Ionic bond
b. Hydrogen bond
c. Covalent bond

C

24

Structurally, ATP is most like which type of molecule?
a. Nucleic acid
b. Lipid
c. Protein
d. Carbohydrate

A

25

The use of phenol (carbolic acid) as a wound disinfectant was first practiced by

a. pasteur
b holmes
c. semmelweis
d. koch
e. lister

E

26

The terms "run" and "tumble" are generally associated with

a. taxic movements of the cell in response to attractants or repellents
b. cell membrane synthesis
c. clustering properties of certain rod-shaped bacteria
d. cell wall fluidity

A

27

The first step for directly linking a microbe to a specific disease according to Koch's postulates is to
A) culture the blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal using nutrient medium.
B) inject a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal into a healthy animal.
C) obtain a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal.
D) compare the blood of a sick animal to blood obtained from a healthy animal.
E) isolate microbes from the blood of healthy animals.

C

28

The formal system for classifying and naming organisms was developed by
A) Robert Koch.
B) Ignaz Semmelweis.
C) Aristotle.
D) Carolus Linnaeus.
E) Louis Pasteur

D

29

The term used to describe a disease-causing microorganism A) bacterium.

B)pathogen.

C) virus.

D)microbe.

E) infection.

B

30

What is the type of weak bond between the hydrogen of one molecule and the nitrogen of another molecule, where the two don't actively share an electron?

A) ionic bond

B) covalent bond

C) hydrogen bond

D) disulfide bond

C

31

Which microscope achieves the highest magnification and greatest resolution?

A) compound light microscope

B) phase-contrast microscope

C) darkfield microscope

D) fluorescence microscope

E) electron microscope

E

32

Which microscope uses visible light?

A) differential interference contrast microscope

B) fluorescence microscope

C) scanning electron microscope

D) scanning acoustic microscope

E) confocal microscope

A

33

Which of the following correctly traces the path of light through the compound microscope?

A) light source; condenser; specimen; objective lens; ocular lens

B) condenser; light source; specimen; ocular lens; objective lens

C) light source; specimen; condenser; objective lens; ocular lens

D) condenser; light source; specimen; objective lens; ocular lens

E) light source; condenser; objective lens; specimen; ocular lens

A

34

Which of the following is NOT a domain in the three-domain system?

A) bacteria

B) animalia

C) eukarya

D). archaea

B

35

Which of the following is NOT associated with viruses?

A) envelope

B) nucleic acid

C) organelles

D) chemical reactions

E) protein coat

C

36

Which of the following is NOT equal to 1 mm?

A)106 nm

B) 0.001 m

C) 0.1 cm

D) 100 μm

E) 10-3 m

D

37

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the acid-fast stain?

A) Acid-fast cells retain the primary dye after treatment with acid-alcohol.

B) Non-acid-fast microbes appear blue in a completed acid-fast stain.

C) Acid-fast cells appear red in a completed acid-fast stain.

D) It is used to identify members of the genus Mycobacterium.

D

38

Which of the following is never useful for observing living cells?

A) darkfield microscope

B) scanning acoustic microscope

C) brightfield microscope

D) phase-contrast microscope

E) scanning electron microscope

E

39

Which of the following is the type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water?

A) ionic bond

B) covalent bond

C) hydrogen bond

C

40

Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?

A) mitochondrion

B) vacuole

C) nucleus

D) Golgi complex

E) cell wall

A

41

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) methylene blue - simple stain

B) nigrosin - negative stain

C) acidic dye - capsule stain

D) basic dye - negative stain

E) crystal violet - simple stain

D

42

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) Golgi complex — secretion

B) endoplasmic reticulum — internal transport

C) centrosome — food storage

D) lysosome — digestive enzymes

E) mitochondria — ATP production

C

43

Which of the following statements about the atom C is FALSE?

A) It has 12 neutrons in its nucleus.

B) It has 6 protons in its nucleus.

C) Its atomic number is 6

D) It has 6 electrons orbiting the nucleus.

E) Its atomic weight is 12.

A

44

Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl?

A) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.

B) Water will move into the cell.

C) Sucrose will move into the cell from a higher to a lower concentration.

D) Water will move out of the cell.

E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.

D

45

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?

A) They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

B) They lack a plasma membrane.

C) They reproduce by binary fission.

D) Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.

E) They typically have a circular chromosome.

B

46

Which of the following structures is NOT found in some prokaryotic cells?

A) flagellum

B) axial filament

C) cilium

D) pilus

E) peritrichous flagella

C

47

Which one of the following organisms has a cell wall?

A) animal cells

B) L forms

C) protoplasts

D) mycoplasmas

E) fungi

E

48

Which type of molecule contains -NH2 (amino) groups?

A) protein

B) nucleic acid

C) carbohydrate

D) triglycerides

A

49

Who is credited with first observing cells?

A) Carolus Linnaeus

B) Louis Pasteur

C) Robert Koch

D) Robert Hooke

E) Anton van Leeuwenhoek

D