PSC 101

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1

Ch.1

The legal basis of Bridget Mergens’s claim against her high school was which of the following?

the Equal Access Act of 1984

2

Ch.1

Bridget Mergens’s request to start a new club on her high school campus was different because she wanted to start a campus­sponsored ______.

Christian bible club.

3

Ch.1

Which of the following best explains the outcome of the Mergens case?

The Court upheld students’ rights to establish faith­-based clubs and organizations on high school campuses.

4

Ch.1

An unintended consequence of the Mergens decision was the application of the Equal Access Act (EAA) to organizations and clubs related to

LGBT associations.

5

Ch.1

The purpose of the Equal Access Act of 1984 was to

restrict the ability of public high schools to limit faith­based clubs and organizations.

6

Ch.1

According to a recent Harvard study, which of the following statements is most correct with regard to the American Dream?

Those with college degrees were more likely to say the American Dream is alive.

7

Ch.1

When Thomas Jefferson wrote about the “pursuit of happiness” in the Declaration of Independence, he was actually tapping into

the American Dream.

8

Ch.1

Politics and government are seen as

closely connected to each other.

9

Ch.1

Which of the following best describes the difference between privileges and rights?

Privileges may be granted and withdrawn by government.

10

Ch.1

Which of these is a fundamental prerequisite to achieving the “American Dream"?

talent and hard work

11

Ch.2

In the years following the revolution, the American states and the government they created struggled against

financial crisis, the fear of foreign invasion, and the threat of internal discord.

12

Ch.2

Madison’s immediate concern in the spring of 1786 was preparing for the convention in

Annapolis.

13

Ch.2

In comparing the Declaration of Independence to the United States Constitution, the authors of the Declaration felt the need to ______, while the framers of the Constitution sought to ______.

announce and justify their separation from Great Britain | create a new nation

14

Ch.2

James Madison researched which of the following topics prior to the Grand Convention?

the death of republics

15

Ch.2

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention would see the new document they created as a(n)

blueprint for government.

16

Ch.2

Madison, together with a group of similarly practical men, sought to create a republic that would be

strong enough to govern without threatening individual rights.

17

Ch.2

Who originally penned the words “We the people...”?

Governor Morris

18

Ch.2

The main question for those who called for political change in America’s early history was

What kind of change?

19

Ch.2

Madison’s years of preparation allowed him to

shape the agenda of debates.

20

Ch.2

How many states sent representatives to the Annapolis Convention?

five

21

Ch.3

One of the most important statements about where the people’s authority is located is the ______ Clause.

Supremacy

22

Ch.3

The Necessary and Proper Clause is also called the ______ Clause.

Elastic

23

Ch.3

The federal government has argued that it has the authority to control drugs at the national and state levels because of their financial and business impact on a national level. In applying this argument, they are relying upon the ______ Clause.

Commerce

24

Ch.3

Key to a true federal system is the existence of

constitutional protections for each level against encroachment on its powers by the other level.

25

Ch.3

Recent focus has been on the recognition of same­sex marriage licenses issued in one state and carried forward to another that failed to recognize same­sex marriage. This would most likely be considered a violation of which of the following important clauses?

Full Faith and Credit Clause

26

Ch.3

Angel McClary Raich and Diane Monson filed suit against the federal government in which state?

California

27

Ch.3

The Constitution clearly establishes that ultimate political authority rests with the

People.

28

Ch.3

Under a ______ system of government, powers are shared between the national government and the states.

federal

29

Ch.3

The Constitution is least clear on the way(s) in which authority and power would be vested to

whatever structures of government Americans would choose to create and maintain.

30

Ch.3

Under a ______ system, the structures of government are placed entirely in the hands of a national government.

unitary

31

Ch.4

Which of the following best defines civil liberties?

rights citizens possess that protect them from unfair governmental interference

32

Ch.4

The Bill of Rights can be found in ______ of the Constitution.

the first 10 amendments

33

Ch.4

Which of the following groups was most concerned with the lack of a Bill of Rights in the Constitution?

Antifederalists

34

Ch.4

If captured by American officials, Eric Snowden would likely face prosecution under which of the following laws?

the Espionage Act of 1917

35

Ch.4

Eric Snowden justified his decision to release American secrets using the argument that ______.

the NSA abused its power to monitor and collect electronic data

36

Ch.4

The right to just compensation when a person’s private property is taken for public use can be found in which part of the Bill of Rights?

Fifth Amendment

37

Ch.4

The Sixth Amendment is important because of which of the following protections?

a fair and speedy public trial

38

Ch.4

Federalist arguments in response to Antifederalist concerns over the Bill of Rights were included in ______ by Alexander Hamilton.

Federalist 84

39

Ch.4

As a compromise, the Constitution included a(n) ______ to compensate for a Bill of Rights.

strict definition of treason

40

Ch.4

Which of the following best describes the condition of civil liberties at the time the American republic was founded?

far from fair and equitable

41

Ch. 5

In response to the slow implementation of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974, individuals across the nation began a series of nonviolent activities called the ______.

504 sit­ins

42

Ch. 5

In Federalist 78, Alexander Hamilton stated that the judiciary is ______.

the weakest of the three departments of power

43

Ch. 5

How many cases were included as a part of the Brown v. Board of Education case?

five

44

Ch. 5

Who argued the Brown v. Board or Education case for the NAACP before the Supreme Court in 1952?

Thurgood Marshall

45

Ch. 5

Legal segregation is best defined as

the separation of individuals based upon their racial identities, by law.

46

Ch. 5

Unlike civil liberties, civil rights require

positive action.

47

Ch. 5

According to the majority opinion of Justice Taney in Scott v. Sandford, natural rights had been ______ bestowed.

subjectively

48

Ch. 5

Even if it succeeded, the NAACP knew its strategy on winning in the Supreme Court was a risky move because ______.

the judicial branch was not designed to be a strong instrument of public policy

49

Ch. 5

According to the Preamble to the Constitution, what is the central purpose of representative government?

to guard and protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of its citizens

50

Ch. 5

In which Supreme Court case were slaves, former slaves, and their descendants deemed property and not citizens?

Scott v. Sandford

51

Ch. 6

Which of the following is a view shared by both supporters and opponents of concealed carrying of weapons laws?

The American higher education system is failing students with its handling of sexual assault cases.

52

Ch. 6

According to data presented in your textbook by armedcampuses.org, which of the following states had passed laws allowing concealed carrying of weapons (CCW) on college campuses as of 2016?

Texas

53

Ch. 6

Amanda Collins claimed the right of herself and others to ______.

legally carry firearms on college and university campuses

54

Ch. 6

Representatives act in the space of government to enact

their constituents’ concerns.

55

Ch. 6

Voting and supporting candidates are considered part of what category of political participation?

inside electoral processes

56

Ch. 6

Voting, volunteering, protesting, and organizing are all examples of

political participation.

57

Ch. 6

Proponents of concealed carrying of weapons are criticized for their

call to change state laws.

58

Ch. 6

Civic engagement can best be defined as working to ______.

improve society through political and nonpolitical activities

59

Ch. 6

Political participation is composed of the different ways in which individuals take action to shape the

laws and policies of a government.

60

Ch. 6

Which of the following organizations backed Amanda Collins in her fight for concealed weapons on college campuses?

NRA

61

Ch. 7

Information is a central part of representative government because

citizens must have some knowledge of what their elected representatives are up to.

62

Ch. 7

What observation did Representative John Conyers (D­Mich) make about the treatment of African Americans by police?

“There are virtually no African­American males who have not been stopped for driving while black.”

63

Ch. 7

One of the most interesting and important debates about American public opinion is

whether public opinion actually exists.

64

Ch. 7

By 2015, how had the national conversation changed?

Public opinion on the issue of police–citizen interactions had shifted.

65

Ch. 7

Many observers could interpret the events of Ferguson, along with the August 5 shooting of John Crawford and the death of Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York, as evidence of

systemic police mistreatment of blacks.

66

Ch. 7

On August 9, 2015, demonstrators in Ferguson, Missouri, rallied to the slogan

“Hands up, don’t shoot.”

67

Ch. 7

Which of the following best defines public opinion?

the sum of individual attitudes about governmental policies and issues

68

Ch. 7

This chapter focused on American public opinion in which of the following specific areas?

treatment of young African American men by law enforcement officials

69

Ch. 7

Which of the following best describes the results of the Pew Survey following the Michael Brown incident?

Eighty percent of black respondents indicated concern for “important issues about race,” while only 37% of white respondents agreed.

70

Ch. 7

American public opinion is difficult to understand because individuals

may not actually have meaningful preferences.

71

Ch. 8

Which of the following are all valid themes of today’s media?

technology, dramatic change, and partisan politics.

72

Ch. 8

While citizen journalists may operate in a variety of contexts, one of the most extreme is

combat and military operations abroad.

73

Ch. 8

The connection between the nation’s media and American politics has been shaped by which of the following?

technology, politics, the rights of a free press, and the need to preserve national security

74

Ch. 8

The collective group of news providers that people increasingly depend upon is called

news media???

75

Ch. 8

Americans are increasingly getting their political information through the filter of

all of the media outlets that inform us of political issues.

76

Ch. 8

In April 2005, Lieutenant General John R. Vines issued a policy that

required servicemen to register their web server/web page with unit commanders for monitoring.

77

Ch. 8

A major problem with the rise in milblogs was an inability to

censor or control the online actions of military personnel that might place operations at risk.

78

Ch. 8

Nonprofessionals who cover events by filming them on cell phones or providing commentaries and analysis are called

citizen journalists.

79

Ch. 8

Which of the following best presents the central question that underlies changes in today’s media?

How effective are the news media in shaping Americans political understandings?

80

Ch. 8

The military see the use of Internet and social media resources as a(n)

personal safety threat to soldiers and family.

81

Ch. 9

In 2016, Trump and Sanders found themselves advancing in the electoral process based upon

voters’ profound disgust with politics as usual.

82

Ch. 9

Political leaders face the challenge of

creating an attractive and consistent message that gets their candidates elected and maintains party cohesion.

83

Ch. 9

Both Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders failed to concentrate their campaigns on the so­called ______ and actually gained favor among voters for it.

party establishment

84

Ch. 9

Anti­establishment campaigns that focus on candidates as “outsiders” with criticism of party elites are generally referred to as

populism.

85

Ch. 9

Which two candidates found themselves unexpectedly winning primaries as political outsiders during the 2016 campaign season?

Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders

86

Ch. 9

Government benefits such as special provisions in the tax code that are provided to businesses in hopes of enabling them to succeed and keep workers on their payroll were referred to as ______ by Senator Sanders.

corporate welfare

87

Ch. 9

Traditionally, most of the drama in an American presidential election is between ______ or ______.

parties, candidates

88

Ch. 9

The reigning political paradox of our era is

partisanship is strong but parties are weak.

89

Ch. 9

Both Senator Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump would normally find themselves too ______ to pose a legitimate threat to their party’s status quo.

extreme

90

Ch. 9

Political parties are best defined as

organized groups of candidates, officeholders, voters, and activists that work together to elect candidates for political office.

91

Ch. 10

In the Republican race of 2016, there were ______ Hispanic candidates running, while in the Democratic race, there were ______.

two | none

92

Ch. 10

Which of the following is considered the fastest­-growing ethnic group in the United States?

Hispanic Americans

93

Ch. 10

Two challenges faced by Senators Cruz and Rubio as they reached out to Latina and Latino voters were their

identity as “Hispanics” and the diversity of their viewpoints.

94

Ch. 10

The Hispanic candidates for the Republican nomination in 2016 shared which of the following Hispanic heritages?

Cuban American

95

Ch. 10

The grouping of individuals based on shared characteristics such as ancestry, race, ethnicity, and gender is known as

demographics.

96

Ch. 10

In December 2015, the Democratic Party presidential forerunner was likening herself to a Hispanic ______, which is translated as “grandmother.”

abuela

97

Ch. 10

Members of Democratic Party–affiliated groups have criticized Senators Cruz and Rubio as

“traitors to their own culture.”

98

Ch. 10

In order to impact current and future elections, Latinas and Latinos must

speak with a unified voice????

99

Ch. 10

Which of the following candidates was targeted by Latinas and Latinos in the Democratic Party as having “hateful anti­Latino, anti­-immigrant language”?

Donald Trump

100

Ch. 10

The greatest force behind changing demographics in the United States is in the ______ population.

Hispanic American

101

Ch. 11

In order for mortgage­-backed securities to provide a return to their customers,

home prices had to go up.

102

Ch. 11

The roots of the financial crisis in the first decade of the 21st century were in the ______ market.

housing

103

Ch. 11

Because banks could not produce enough loans to supply the mortgage­-backed securities market, they began to

take increasingly larger risks.

104

Ch. 11

A problem with mortgage­backed securities (MBS) was

they were too mathematically complicated for the average banker to understand.

105

Ch. 11

Groups and communities that join with each other in pursuit of collective interests and common goals are known as

voluntary associations.

106

Ch. 11

Members of interest groups and social movements often resort to ______ to achieve their goals.

different tactics

107

Ch. 11

In the American political system, elected leaders are tasked with

speaking on behalf of the people.

108

Ch. 11

voluntary associations share common traits in that they

get their rights to organize from the First Amendment.

109

Ch. 11

What policy decision did banks want the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department to make?

a large national bailout

110

Ch. 11

Associations of individuals that come together to change things or to keep things from changing by calling attention to a set of perceived injustices or wrongs in order to get policy makers to act and/or to educate the people are best described as

social movements.

111

Ch. 12

Two important ways in which the framers of the Constitution tried to contain the dangers of faction were through

federalism and separation of powers.

112

Ch. 12

James Madison argued that “the door” to the House of Representatives was the ability to be selected on the basis of

merit.

113

Ch. 12

Congress is separated into two chambers that are increasingly divided along ______ lines.

partisan

114

Ch. 12

The first woman to serve in the Senate was ______, who served in 1922 for only a day.

Rebecca Latimer Felton

115

Ch. 12

Which of the following do all of the members of the United States Congress have in common?

They are there to represent voter interests.

116

Ch. 12

Which of the following terms was James Madison’s way of referring to the dangers of faction?

“usurpation and perfidy”

117

Ch. 12

In 2016, the 114th session of Congress included ______ women senators.

21*

118

Ch. 12

The act of “standing for” one’s constituents in government is defined as

representation.

119

Ch. 12

In Congress, 1992 was known as the year of

the woman.

120

Ch. 12

A bicameral legislature with distinct differences between the House and the Senate established ______ within Congress and not just between Congress and the other branches.

checks and balances

121

Ch. 13

In the American political system, the president acts as head of

the executive branch.

122

Ch. 13

In May 2013, Attorney General Eric Holder formally acknowledged

an earlier drone strike that targeted an American citizen.

123

Ch. 13

The executive branch of government is charged with

putting the nation’s laws into effect.

124

Ch. 13

the Obama administrations justification for the al­-Awlaki killing was

to protect from threats against national security.

125

Ch. 13

Just two weeks after the killing of Anwar al-­Awlaki, another drone strike killed

al­-Awlaki’s son.

126

Ch. 13

Which of the following best describes the relationship between the president and Congress?

Congress and the president often have differing political goals.

127

Ch. 13

The Virginia and New Jersey Plans both

left the length of the executive’s term blank.

128

Ch. 13

What drove al­-Awlaki to defend his faith with violence?

U.S. policy of war in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

129

Ch. 13

The framers of the Constitution feared

the office of the president might become too powerful.

130

Ch. 13

Presidents act powerfully to shape

all areas of policy.

131

Ch. 14

Of all of the concerns in New Orleans prior to Hurricane Katrina, perhaps most worrisome was the ______ system.

levee and pump

132

Ch. 14

Driving much of the bureaucracy’s direct involvement in American lives are the demands of

the people themselves.

133

Ch. 14

Unlike Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court, the federal bureaucracy differs in that it ______.

has a more direct impact on American lives.

134

Ch. 14

An official employed within a government bureaucracy is called a(n)

bureaucrat.

135

Ch. 14

According to early research into bureaucracies, bureaucratic power rests upon

rational-­legal authority.

136

Ch. 14

The Weberian bureaucracy is characterized by which of the following organizational traits?

clear division of labor

hierarchal organization

impersonal relationships

specialized jobs

137

Ch. 14

Privately owned corporations and companies that carry out specific tasks according to a prescribed set of rules and procedures are called

private bureaucracies.

138

Ch. 14

An organization designed to carry out specific tasks according to a prescribed set of rules and procedures is referred to as a(n) ______.

bureaucracy

139

Ch. 14

The word “bureaucracy” literally means

“rule by offices.”

140

Ch. 14

Which of the following was used as the shelter of last resort for New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?

the New Orleans Superdome