What does the nurse note when measuring the frequency of a laboring
a. How long the patient states the contractions last
b. The time between the end of one contraction and the beginning of the next
c. The time between the beginning and the end of one contraction
d. The time between the beginning of one contraction and the beginning of the next
The frequency of contractions is the elapsed time from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction.
Why is the relaxation phase between contractions important?
a. The laboring woman needs to rest.
b. The uterine muscles fatigue without relaxation.
c. The contractions can interfere with fetal oxygenation.
d. The infant progresses toward delivery at these times.
Blood flow from the mother into the placenta gradually decreases during contractions. During the interval between contractions, the placenta refills with oxygenated blood for the fetus.
What contraction duration and interval does the nurse recognize could
result in fetal compromise?
a. Duration shorter than 30 seconds, interval longer than 75 seconds
b. Duration shorter than 90 seconds, interval longer than 120 seconds
c. Duration longer than 90 seconds, interval shorter than 60 seconds
d. Duration longer than 60 seconds, interval shorter than 90 seconds
Persistent contraction durations longer than 90 seconds or contraction intervals less than 60 seconds may reduce fetal oxygen supply.
Vaginal examination reveals the presenting part is the infants head,
which is well flexed on the chest. What is this presentation?
In the vertex presentation, the fetal head is the presenting part. The head is fully flexed on the chest.
What does meconium-stained amniotic fluid indicate when the infant is
in a vertex presentation?
a. Fetal distress
b. Fetal maturity
c. Intact gastrointestinal tract
d. Dehydration in the mother
Green-stained amniotic fluid means that the fetus passed the first stool before birth, and it is an indicator of fetal compromise.
It is determined that the presenting part of the fetus is the
buttocks. At delivery the fetuss hips are flexed and the knees are
extended. How would the nurse record this presentation?
a. Complete breech
b. Frank breech
c. Double footling
d. Buttocks presentation
When a fetus presents in a frank breech position, the legs are flexed at the hips and extend toward the shoulders.
At a prenatal visit, a primigravida asks the nurse how she will know
her labor has started. The nurse knows that what indicates the
beginning of true labor?
a. Contractions that are relieved by walking
b. Discomfort in the abdomen and groin
c. A decrease in vaginal discharge
d. Regular contractions becoming more frequent and intense
In true labor, contractions gradually develop a regular pattern and become more frequent, longer, and more intense.
While discussing labor and delivery during a prenatal visit, a
primigravida asks the nurse when she should go to the hospital. What
is the nurses most informative response?
a. When you feel increased fetal movement
b. When contractions are 10 minutes apart
c. When membranes have ruptured
d. When abdominal or groin discomfort occurs
Ruptured membranes are an indication that the woman should go to the hospital or birthing center.
The nurse is caring for a woman in the first stage of labor. What
will the nurse remind the patient about contractions during this stage
a. They get the infant positioned for delivery.
b. They push the infant into the vagina.
c. They dilate and efface the cervix.
d. They get the mother prepared for true labor.
The first stage of labor describes the time from the onset of labor until full dilation of the cervix.
A woman is 7 cm dilated, and her contractions are 3 minutes apart.
When she begins cursing at her birthing coach and the nurse, what does
the nurse assess as the most likely explanation for the womans change
a. Labor has progressed to the transition phase.
b. She lacked adequate preparation for the labor experience.
c. The woman would benefit from a different form of analgesia.
d. The contractions have increased from mild to moderate intensity.
If a woman suddenly loses control and becomes irritable, suspect that she has progressed to the transition stage of labor.
. What is the function of contractions during the second stage of
a. Align the infant into the proper position for delivery
b. Dilate and efface the cervix
c. Push the infant out of the mothers body
d. Separate the placenta from the uterine wall
The contractions push the infant out of the mothers body as the second stage of labor ends with the birth of the infant.
What marks the end of the third stage of labor?
a. Full cervical dilation
b. Expulsion of the placenta and membranes
c. Birth of the infant
d. Engagement of the head
The third stage of labor extends from the birth of the infant until the placenta is detached and expelled.
Why should the nurse encourage the mother to void during the fourth
stage of labor?
a. A full bladder could interfere with cervical dilation.
b. A full bladder could obstruct progress of the infant through the birth canal.
c. A full bladder could obstruct the passage of the placenta.
d. A full bladder could predispose the mother to uterine hemorrhage.
A full bladder immediately after birth can cause excessive bleeding because it pushes the uterus upward and interferes with contractions.
The nurse observes the patient bearing down with contractions and
crying out, The baby is coming! What is the best nursing
a. Find the physician.
b. Stay with the woman and use the call bell to get help.
c. Send the womans partner to locate a registered nurse.
d. Assist with deep breathing to slow the labor process.
If birth appears to be imminent, the nurse should not leave the woman and should summon help with the call bell.
The nurse observes on the fetal monitor a pattern of a 15-beat
increase in the fetal heart rate that lasts 15 to 20 seconds. What
does this pattern indicate?
a. A well-oxygenated fetus
b. Compression of the umbilical cord
c. Compression of the fetal head
d. Uteroplacental insufficiency
Accelerations in the fetal heart rate suggest that the fetus is well oxygenated.
What is the most appropriate statement from the nurse when coaching
the laboring woman with a fully dilated cervix to push?
a. At the beginning of a contraction, hold your breath and push for 10 seconds.
b. Take a deep breath and push between contractions.
c. Begin pushing when a contraction starts and continue for the duration of the contraction.
d. At the beginning of a contraction, take two deep breaths and push with the second exhalation.
When the cervix is fully dilated, the woman should take a deep breath and exhale at the beginning of a contraction, and then take another deep breath and push while exhaling.
What is the most important nursing intervention during the fourth
stage of labor?
a. Monitor the frequency and intensity of contractions.
b. Provide comfort measures.
c. Assess for hemorrhage.
d. Promote bonding.
Immediately after giving birth, every woman is assessed for signs of hemorrhage.
One hour postdelivery the nurse notes the new mother has saturated
three perineal pads. What is the most appropriate nursing
a. Check the fundus for position and firmness.
b. Report to the doctor immediately.
c. Change the pads and chart the time.
d. Time how long it takes to soak one pad.
Increased lochia may indicate hemorrhage. The fundus should be assessed for firmness. One pad an hour is an acceptable rate for immediate postdelivery.
While caring for a laboring woman, the nurse notices a pattern of
variable decelerations in fetal heart rate with uterine contractions.
What is the nurses initial action?
a. Stop the oxytocin infusion.
b. Increase the intravenous flow rate.
c. Reposition the woman on her side.
d. Start oxygen via nasal cannula.
Repositioning the woman is the first response to a pattern of variable decelerations. If the decelerations continue, then oxygen should be administered and/or the flow rate of oxygen should be increased.
How should the nurse intervene to relieve perineal bruising and edema
a. Place an ice pack on the area for 12 hours.
b. Place a warm pack on the perineal area for 24 hours.
c. Administer aspirin to relieve inflammation.
d. Change the perineal pad frequently.
An ice pack can be placed on the mothers perineum to reduce bruising and edema for 12 hours followed by a warm pack after the first 12 to 24 hours after delivery.
At 1 and 5 minutes of life, a newborns Apgar score is 9. What does
the nurse understand that a score of 9 indicates?
a. The newborn will require resuscitation.
b. The newborn may have physical disabilities.
c. The newborn will have above average intelligence.
d. The newborn is in stable condition.
Apgar scoring is a system for evaluating the infants need for resuscitation at birth. Five categories are evaluated on a scale from 0 to 2, with the highest score being 10. A score of 9 indicates that the newborn is stable.
The husband of a woman in labor asks, What does it mean when the baby
is at minus 1 station? After giving an explanation, what statement by
the husband indicates that teaching was effective?
a. Fetal head is above the ischial spines.
b. Fetal head is below the ischial spines.
c. Fetal head is engaged in the mothers pelvis.
d. Fetal head is visible at the perineum.
Station describes the level of the presenting part in the pelvis. It is estimated in centimeters from the level of the ischial spines. Minus stations are above the ischial spines.
The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis for a woman in the fourth
stage of labor. What is the most appropriate nursing
a. Pain related to increasing frequency and intensity of contractions.
b. Fear related to the probable need for cesarean delivery.
c. Dysuria related to prolonged labor and decreased intake.
d. Risk for injury related to hemorrhage.
In the fourth stage of labor, a priority nursing action is identifying and preventing hemorrha
The nurse is caring for a patient who is not certain if she is in
true labor. How might the nurse attempt to stimulate cervical
effacement and intensify contractions in the patient?
a. By offering the patient warm fluids to drink
b. By helping the patient to ambulate in the room
c. By seating the patient upright in a straight-back chair
d. By positioning the patient on her right side
Ambulation will stimulate effacement and intensify contractions if the patient is in true labor.
What is the best nursing action to implement when late decelerations
a. Reposition the patient to supine
b. Decrease flow of intravenous (IV) fluids
c. Increase oxygen to 10 L/minute
d. Prepare to increase oxytocin drip
The major objective of care for late decelerations is to increase maternal oxygen. IV fluids are increased to increase placental perfusion, oxytocin drips are stopped, and the patient is positioned to prevent supine hypotension.
What is the nurse primarily concerned about maintaining in the
initial care of the newborn?
a. Fluid intake
b. Feeding schedule
d. Parental bonding
Thermoregulation is necessary to keep heat loss minimal and oxygen consumption low. Hypothermia can cause cold stress, which leads to hypoxia.
A pregnant woman, gravida 2, para 1, tells the nurse she desires a
VBAC (vaginal birth after cesarean section) with this pregnancy. What
is the primary concern regarding complications for this patient during
labor and birth?
b. Placental abruption
c. Congestive heart failure
d. Uterine rupture
Nursing care for women who plan to have a VBAC is similar to that for women who have had no cesarean births. The main concern is that the uterine scar will rupture, which can disrupt the placental blood flow and cause hemorrhage. Observation for signs of uterine rupture should be part of the nursing care for all laboring women, regardless of whether they have had a previous cesarean birth.
The physician performs an amniotomy on a laboring woman. What will be
the nurses priority assessment immediately following this
a. Fetal heart rate
b. Fluid amount
c. Maternal blood pressure
d. Deep tendon reflexes
The FHR should be assessed for at least 1 full minute after the membranes rupture and must be recorded and reported. Marked slowing of the rate or variable decelerations suggests that the fetal umbilical cord may have descended with the fluid gush and is being compressed. Fluid amount should be assessed and recorded but is not the top priority. Maternal blood pressure and deep tendon reflexes are not appropriate assessments following rupture of membranes.
While caring for an Arab woman in labor, the nurse should provide
cultural sensitivity through which interventions? (Select all that
a. Provide for extreme modesty.
b. Assign a male caregiver.
c. Arrange for the husband/partner to participate in labor.
d. Provide adequate pain control.
e. Respect protective amulets.
ANS: A, D, E
Arab women are extremely modest, usually have a low pain tolerance, and wear various protective and religious amulets. The husband is in attendance but not as a participant. Arabs prefer female caregivers. If a male is in attendance, then the husband will remain in the room as long as the male is there.
What are the advantages of a freestanding birth center? (Select all
a. Home-like setting
b. Designed for high-risk pregnancies
c. Lower costs
d. Attended by certified obstetricians
e. Immediate emergency access
ANS: A, C
Advantages of a freestanding birth center include a homelike setting and lower costs because the center does not require expensive departments such as emergency or critical care. Freestanding birth centers are not designed for high-risk patients, are not attended by certified obstetricians, and do not have immediate emergency access.
What do late decelerations indicate? (Select all that apply.)
a. A nonreassuring pattern
b. Uteroplacental insufficiency
c. Fetal heart depression
d. Cord compression
e. Head compression
ANS: A, B, C
This nonreassuring pattern indicates uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal heart compression. Prolonged decelerations indicate cord compression and early decelerations indicate head compressions
A pregnant woman arrives at the emergency department (ED) and reports
she is in labor. After a thorough examination and diagnostic testing,
it is determined to be false (prodromal) labor. What signs and
symptoms would lead the nurse to suspect false (prodromal) labor?
(Select all that apply.)
a. Leaking of vaginal fluid
b. Contractions intensify with ambulation
c. Pink spotting
d. Painless tightening of abdominal muscles
e. Cervix thick and not effaced
ANS: D, E
Painless tightening of abdominal muscles (Braxton-Hicks contractions) and cervix thick and not effaced lend to the determination of false (prodromal) labor. Leaking of vaginal fluid may indicate rupture of membranes and is a sign of true labor. Contractions that intensify with ambulation and pink spotting (bloody show) are signs of true labor.
After the pregnant woman is admitted to the labor suite, the nurse assesses the position of the infant as ROA; this means that the infants head is _________ __________ _________.
right occiput anterior
Right occiput anterior means that the infants right occiput is toward the anterior aspect of the mothers body.
The nurse explains that the four Ps of the birth process are __________, __________, __________, and __________.
powers, passenger, passage, psyche
The four interrelated components of the process of labor and birth, called the four Ps, are powers, passenger, passage, and psyche.
After the membranes have ruptured, the nurse should assess the fetal heart rate (FHR) for ________ minute(s).
The FHR is checked for 1 full minute to ensure that the infant is not in distress from cord compression resultant from the lost buoyancy.
he nurse may assist the health care provider in determining the fetal position and presentation by abdominal palpations called _____________________________ _____________________________.
The nurse may assist the health care provider in determining the fetal position and presentation by abdominal palpations called Leopolds maneuver.
A nursing student is observing prenatal exams in the office setting. The health care provider informs the student that the fetal position is LSA. The student interprets this as a ____________________ presentation.
LSA is the abbreviation for Left Sacrum Anterior. This is a breech presentation.