What does the nurse note when measuring the frequency of a laboring
a. How long the patient states the
b. The time between the end of one contraction
and the beginning of the next
c. The time between the beginning
and the end of one contraction
d. The time between the beginning
of one contraction and the beginning of the next
The frequency of contractions is the elapsed time from
the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction.
Why is the relaxation phase between contractions important?
The laboring woman needs to rest.
b. The uterine muscles fatigue
c. The contractions can interfere with fetal
d. The infant progresses toward delivery at these times.
Blood flow from the mother into the placenta gradually
decreases during contractions. During the interval between
contractions, the placenta refills with oxygenated blood for the fetus.
What contraction duration and interval does the nurse recognize could
result in fetal compromise?
a. Duration shorter than 30 seconds,
interval longer than 75 seconds
b. Duration shorter than 90
seconds, interval longer than 120 seconds
c. Duration longer than
90 seconds, interval shorter than 60 seconds
d. Duration longer
than 60 seconds, interval shorter than 90 seconds
Persistent contraction durations longer than 90 seconds
or contraction intervals less than 60 seconds may reduce fetal oxygen supply.
Vaginal examination reveals the presenting part is the infants head,
which is well flexed on the chest. What is this presentation?
In the vertex presentation, the fetal head is the
presenting part. The head is fully flexed on the chest.
What does meconium-stained amniotic fluid indicate when the infant is
in a vertex presentation?
a. Fetal distress
c. Intact gastrointestinal tract
d. Dehydration in
Green-stained amniotic fluid means that the fetus passed
the first stool before birth, and it is an indicator of fetal compromise.
It is determined that the presenting part of the fetus is the
buttocks. At delivery the fetuss hips are flexed and the knees are
extended. How would the nurse record this presentation?
b. Frank breech
c. Double footling
When a fetus presents in a frank breech position, the
legs are flexed at the hips and extend toward the shoulders.
At a prenatal visit, a primigravida asks the nurse how she will know
her labor has started. The nurse knows that what indicates the
beginning of true labor?
a. Contractions that are relieved by
b. Discomfort in the abdomen and groin
c. A decrease
in vaginal discharge
d. Regular contractions becoming more
frequent and intense
In true labor, contractions gradually develop a regular
pattern and become more frequent, longer, and more intense.
While discussing labor and delivery during a prenatal visit, a
primigravida asks the nurse when she should go to the hospital. What
is the nurses most informative response?
a. When you feel
increased fetal movement
b. When contractions are 10 minutes
c. When membranes have ruptured
d. When abdominal or
groin discomfort occurs
Ruptured membranes are an indication that the woman
should go to the hospital or birthing center.
The nurse is caring for a woman in the first stage of labor. What
will the nurse remind the patient about contractions during this stage
a. They get the infant positioned for delivery.
They push the infant into the vagina.
c. They dilate and efface
d. They get the mother prepared for true labor.
The first stage of labor describes the time from the
onset of labor until full dilation of the cervix.
A woman is 7 cm dilated, and her contractions are 3 minutes apart.
When she begins cursing at her birthing coach and the nurse, what does
the nurse assess as the most likely explanation for the womans change
a. Labor has progressed to the transition
b. She lacked adequate preparation for the labor
c. The woman would benefit from a different form of
d. The contractions have increased from mild to
If a woman suddenly loses control and becomes irritable,
suspect that she has progressed to the transition stage of labor.
. What is the function of contractions during the second stage of
a. Align the infant into the proper position for
b. Dilate and efface the cervix
c. Push the infant
out of the mothers body
d. Separate the placenta from the uterine wall
The contractions push the infant out of the mothers body
as the second stage of labor ends with the birth of the infant.
What marks the end of the third stage of labor?
a. Full cervical
b. Expulsion of the placenta and membranes
of the infant
d. Engagement of the head
The third stage of labor extends from the birth of the
infant until the placenta is detached and expelled.
Why should the nurse encourage the mother to void during the fourth
stage of labor?
a. A full bladder could interfere with cervical
b. A full bladder could obstruct progress of the infant
through the birth canal.
c. A full bladder could obstruct the
passage of the placenta.
d. A full bladder could predispose the
mother to uterine hemorrhage.
A full bladder immediately after birth can cause
excessive bleeding because it pushes the uterus upward and interferes
The nurse observes the patient bearing down with contractions and
crying out, The baby is coming! What is the best nursing
a. Find the physician.
b. Stay with the woman
and use the call bell to get help.
c. Send the womans partner to
locate a registered nurse.
d. Assist with deep breathing to slow
the labor process.
If birth appears to be imminent, the nurse should not
leave the woman and should summon help with the call bell.
The nurse observes on the fetal monitor a pattern of a 15-beat
increase in the fetal heart rate that lasts 15 to 20 seconds. What
does this pattern indicate?
a. A well-oxygenated fetus
Compression of the umbilical cord
c. Compression of the fetal
d. Uteroplacental insufficiency
Accelerations in the fetal heart rate suggest that the
fetus is well oxygenated.
What is the most appropriate statement from the nurse when coaching
the laboring woman with a fully dilated cervix to push?
a. At the
beginning of a contraction, hold your breath and push for 10
b. Take a deep breath and push between
c. Begin pushing when a contraction starts and
continue for the duration of the contraction.
d. At the beginning
of a contraction, take two deep breaths and push with the second exhalation.
When the cervix is fully dilated, the woman should take a
deep breath and exhale at the beginning of a contraction, and then
take another deep breath and push while exhaling.
What is the most important nursing intervention during the fourth
stage of labor?
a. Monitor the frequency and intensity of
b. Provide comfort measures.
c. Assess for
d. Promote bonding.
Immediately after giving birth, every woman is assessed
for signs of hemorrhage.
One hour postdelivery the nurse notes the new mother has saturated
three perineal pads. What is the most appropriate nursing
a. Check the fundus for position and firmness.
Report to the doctor immediately.
c. Change the pads and chart
d. Time how long it takes to soak one pad.
Increased lochia may indicate hemorrhage. The fundus
should be assessed for firmness. One pad an hour is an acceptable rate
for immediate postdelivery.
While caring for a laboring woman, the nurse notices a pattern of
variable decelerations in fetal heart rate with uterine contractions.
What is the nurses initial action?
a. Stop the oxytocin
b. Increase the intravenous flow rate.
Reposition the woman on her side.
d. Start oxygen via nasal cannula.
Repositioning the woman is the first response to a
pattern of variable decelerations. If the decelerations continue, then
oxygen should be administered and/or the flow rate of oxygen should be increased.
How should the nurse intervene to relieve perineal bruising and edema
a. Place an ice pack on the area for 12
b. Place a warm pack on the perineal area for 24
c. Administer aspirin to relieve inflammation.
Change the perineal pad frequently.
An ice pack can be placed on the mothers perineum to
reduce bruising and edema for 12 hours followed by a warm pack after
the first 12 to 24 hours after delivery.
At 1 and 5 minutes of life, a newborns Apgar score is 9. What does
the nurse understand that a score of 9 indicates?
a. The newborn
will require resuscitation.
b. The newborn may have physical
c. The newborn will have above average
d. The newborn is in stable condition.
Apgar scoring is a system for evaluating the infants need
for resuscitation at birth. Five categories are evaluated on a scale
from 0 to 2, with the highest score being 10. A score of 9 indicates
that the newborn is stable.
The husband of a woman in labor asks, What does it mean when the baby
is at minus 1 station? After giving an explanation, what statement by
the husband indicates that teaching was effective?
a. Fetal head
is above the ischial spines.
b. Fetal head is below the ischial
c. Fetal head is engaged in the mothers pelvis.
Fetal head is visible at the perineum.
Station describes the level of the presenting part in the
pelvis. It is estimated in centimeters from the level of the ischial
spines. Minus stations are above the ischial spines.
The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis for a woman in the fourth
stage of labor. What is the most appropriate nursing
a. Pain related to increasing frequency and intensity
b. Fear related to the probable need for
c. Dysuria related to prolonged labor and
d. Risk for injury related to hemorrhage.
In the fourth stage of labor, a priority nursing action
is identifying and preventing hemorrha
The nurse is caring for a patient who is not certain if she is in
true labor. How might the nurse attempt to stimulate cervical
effacement and intensify contractions in the patient?
offering the patient warm fluids to drink
b. By helping the
patient to ambulate in the room
c. By seating the patient upright
in a straight-back chair
d. By positioning the patient on her
Ambulation will stimulate effacement and intensify
contractions if the patient is in true labor.
What is the best nursing action to implement when late decelerations
a. Reposition the patient to supine
b. Decrease flow
of intravenous (IV) fluids
c. Increase oxygen to 10
d. Prepare to increase oxytocin drip
The major objective of care for late decelerations is to
increase maternal oxygen. IV fluids are increased to increase
placental perfusion, oxytocin drips are stopped, and the patient is
positioned to prevent supine hypotension.
What is the nurse primarily concerned about maintaining in the
initial care of the newborn?
a. Fluid intake
d. Parental bonding
Thermoregulation is necessary to keep heat loss minimal
and oxygen consumption low. Hypothermia can cause cold stress, which
leads to hypoxia.
A pregnant woman, gravida 2, para 1, tells the nurse she desires a
VBAC (vaginal birth after cesarean section) with this pregnancy. What
is the primary concern regarding complications for this patient during
labor and birth?
b. Placental abruption
Congestive heart failure
d. Uterine rupture
Nursing care for women who plan to have a VBAC is similar
to that for women who have had no cesarean births. The main concern is
that the uterine scar will rupture, which can disrupt the placental
blood flow and cause hemorrhage. Observation for signs of uterine
rupture should be part of the nursing care for all laboring women,
regardless of whether they have had a previous cesarean birth.
The physician performs an amniotomy on a laboring woman. What will be
the nurses priority assessment immediately following this
a. Fetal heart rate
b. Fluid amount
Maternal blood pressure
d. Deep tendon reflexes
The FHR should be assessed for at least 1 full minute
after the membranes rupture and must be recorded and reported. Marked
slowing of the rate or variable decelerations suggests that the fetal
umbilical cord may have descended with the fluid gush and is being
compressed. Fluid amount should be assessed and recorded but is not
the top priority. Maternal blood pressure and deep tendon reflexes are
not appropriate assessments following rupture of membranes.
While caring for an Arab woman in labor, the nurse should provide
cultural sensitivity through which interventions? (Select all that
a. Provide for extreme modesty.
b. Assign a male
c. Arrange for the husband/partner to participate in
d. Provide adequate pain control.
ANS: A, D, E
Arab women are extremely modest, usually have a low
pain tolerance, and wear various protective and religious amulets. The
husband is in attendance but not as a participant. Arabs prefer female
caregivers. If a male is in attendance, then the husband will remain
in the room as long as the male is there.
What are the advantages of a freestanding birth center? (Select all
a. Home-like setting
b. Designed for high-risk
c. Lower costs
d. Attended by certified
e. Immediate emergency access
ANS: A, C
Advantages of a freestanding birth center include a
homelike setting and lower costs because the center does not require
expensive departments such as emergency or critical care. Freestanding
birth centers are not designed for high-risk patients, are not
attended by certified obstetricians, and do not have immediate
What do late decelerations indicate? (Select all that apply.)
A nonreassuring pattern
b. Uteroplacental insufficiency
Fetal heart depression
d. Cord compression
e. Head compression
ANS: A, B, C
This nonreassuring pattern indicates uteroplacental
insufficiency and fetal heart compression. Prolonged decelerations
indicate cord compression and early decelerations indicate head compressions
A pregnant woman arrives at the emergency department (ED) and reports
she is in labor. After a thorough examination and diagnostic testing,
it is determined to be false (prodromal) labor. What signs and
symptoms would lead the nurse to suspect false (prodromal) labor?
(Select all that apply.)
a. Leaking of vaginal fluid
Contractions intensify with ambulation
c. Pink spotting
Painless tightening of abdominal muscles
e. Cervix thick and not effaced
ANS: D, E
Painless tightening of abdominal muscles
(Braxton-Hicks contractions) and cervix thick and not effaced lend to
the determination of false (prodromal) labor. Leaking of vaginal fluid
may indicate rupture of membranes and is a sign of true labor.
Contractions that intensify with ambulation and pink spotting (bloody
show) are signs of true labor.
After the pregnant woman is admitted to the labor suite, the nurse
assesses the position of the infant as ROA; this means that the
infants head is _________ __________ _________.
right occiput anterior
Right occiput anterior means
that the infants right occiput is toward the anterior aspect of the
The nurse explains that the four Ps of the birth process are
__________, __________, __________, and __________.
powers, passenger, passage, psyche
interrelated components of the process of labor and birth, called the
four Ps, are powers, passenger, passage, and psyche.
After the membranes have ruptured, the nurse should assess the fetal
heart rate (FHR) for ________ minute(s).
The FHR is checked for 1 full minute to ensure that
the infant is not in distress from cord compression resultant from the
he nurse may assist the health care provider in determining the fetal
position and presentation by abdominal palpations called
The nurse may assist the health care
provider in determining the fetal position and presentation by
abdominal palpations called Leopolds maneuver.
A nursing student is observing prenatal exams in the office setting.
The health care provider informs the student that the fetal position
is LSA. The student interprets this as a ____________________ presentation.
LSA is the abbreviation for Left Sacrum
Anterior. This is a breech presentation.