106 notecards = 27 pages (4 cards per page)
Using Figure 6.1, match the following bone types with the numbered
1) Bone 1 C
Using Figure 6.2, match the following:
Bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal.
Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight
Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption.
B) Paget's disease
An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual
separation of the parts. Common in children.
Bone fragments into many pieces.
Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.
The lining of the marrow cavity.
Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.
Layers of bone matrix.
Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.
Cells that can build bony matrix.
The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral
The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the
B) Appositional growth
The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone
The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.
C) Epiphyseal line
Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place.
E) Epiphyseal plate
B) Long bone
A) Short bone
E) Sesamoid bone
D) Flat bone
C) Irregular bone
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the
following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand
C) compact bone
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
D) hyaline cartilage
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
The term diploë refers to the ________.
C) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a
projection that helps to form
Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.
A) drinking fluoridated water
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
C) is produced by secondary ossification centers
Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in
length until early childhood,
C) epiphyseal plate
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
D) the osteon
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum.
The inner (osteogenic)
C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective
C) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian
canal) is the site of
D) blood vessels and nerve fibers
What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which
osteocytes live called?
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the
following is necessary?
B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
C) appositional growth
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which
of the following cells
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium
ions into the bloodstream?
C) parathyroid hormone
The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about
the age of 40, ________.
C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Cranial bones develop ________.
B) within fibrous membranes
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend
to decrease blood
Osteomyelitis is ________.
C) due to pus-forming bacteria
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is
B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing
the cartilage to grow from
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
B) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.
Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
C) bone formation
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively
A) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which
hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
C) growth hormone
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children
closes too early. What might
B) elevated levels of sex hormones
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake
A) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Ostealgia is ________.
C) pain in a bone
Blood cell formation is called ________.
A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ________ bone.
A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries,
lymph vessels, and
A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification.
________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.
________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.
________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.
A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels
and/or nerves is called a(n)
List the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.
Hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus
What is found in a Haversian canal?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers.
Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood calcium levels?
To keep bones in proper dimensions, PTH and calcitonin are the major determinants of whether and when remodeling will occur in response to changing blood calcium.
Why are the bones of young children much more flexible than those of the elderly?
Bones of children are not completely calcified, with a higher ratio of more flexible organic fibers. Bones in the elderly are more completely calcified, which gives the characteristic of rigidity.
Inflammation of bony tissue is called ________.
Bones appear to be lifeless structures. Does bone material renew itself?
Bone only appears lifeless in gross anatomy. Microscopically, bone is full of cells and blood vessels that maintain and renew bone tissue. Approximately 5% to 7% of our bone mass is recycled each week. Up to 0.5 g of calcium may enter or leave the bones each day, depending on the negative feedback hormonal mechanism and gravitational forces.
Compare the function of the organic materials in the bone matrix with
the function of the
The organic matrix contributes to the bone structure and its tensile
strength, while the
What are the differences between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of long bones?
The diaphysis bone is composed almost entirely of compact bone (except in irregular and short bones), while the epiphyses are composed almost entirely of spongy bone. The epiphyses are on the ends of the bone; the diaphysis is the "shank" of the bone. The diaphysis in long bones has a large medullary cavity, whereas the epiphyses do not.
Describe how oxygen is carried from outside a bone to an individual osteocyte.
Blood vessels enter through the periosteum into a perforating canal.
The vessel may follow along the axis of the bone through a central
canal. Osteocytes have long, almost dendritic-like extensions or arms
that reach out through tiny holes called canaliculi. The canaliculi
connect one cell to another and to the central canal. Oxygen would
leave the blood vessel in the central canal and travel through the
canaliculi from cell to cell until it reaches the
How is the beginning of intramembraneous ossification different from
Intramembraneous ossification starts in connective tissue from
mesenchymal cells that become osteoblasts. These osteoblasts cluster
together into an ossification center. Endochondral
If your doctor notices a marked decrease in calcium ion levels in
your blood, what gland
The parathyroid gland normally responds to low calcium ion levels in the blood and releases PTH, which mobilizes osteoclasts to step up bone destruction, releasing more calcium into the bloodstream. If the parathyroid is not functioning properly it may release too much PTH or not respond at all, which seems to be the case here.
June probably has "bony spurs," which are abnormal projections from a bone due to bone overgrowth.
The child most likely has rickets, a condition caused by poor diet, especially one deficient in vitamin D. The parents were told to increase her intake of calcium and vitamin D and to make sure that she gets some sunshine every day.
Emily has osteoporosis, a debilitating bone disease that strikes more women than men after age 45-50. The bones become weak and brittle due to leaching of calcium from the bone. Emily has been told that she needs to lose weight because her bones may not have the strength to support her body mass.
The child had more organic material in her bones, which allows them to bend, while her grandmother's bones are extensively calcified, with little organic material, and are probably thin due to osteoporosis.
Long bones are nourished by nutrient arteries that frequently enter the shaft. Removal of the soft tissues probably reduced the flow of blood to the affected area. The pathway would include diffusion of nutrients from blood vessels to periosteum to Volkmann's canals to Haversian canals to canaliculi to lacunae.
Vitamin D is manufactured by sunlight and is needed for absorption of dietary calcium. People who live in the north where the winter months are severe may need supplemental vitamin D because of the decreased amount of sunlight exposure.
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children. Parents need to provide children with the opportunity to develop as much bone as they have inherited the ability to develop. If people increase their peak bone mass as young adults, they will have additional protection from osteoporotic fractures in the future.
No. The level of calcium in the blood is expected to be normal, even in advanced cases of osteoporosis. The calcium in the bones will be low, but that is not indicated by the blood nourishment.
Open reduction is the correction of the bone alignment through a surgical incision. It may include internal fixation of the fracture with the use of rods, wire, screws, pins, or nails, metal items that may trigger security alarms.
Because bone deposition and reabsorption can occur, and because bone responds to mechanical stress (Wolff's law), a tooth can be moved. By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.
Mechanical stress and gravity help to promote skeletal remodeling. Swimming is not considered a weight-bearing exercise. The water, not bones, supports the body's weight while swimming.