80 notecards = 20 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of these is a correct representation of the hierarchy of biological organization from least to most organization?
A) organelle of an intestinal cell, digestive system, small
intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, organism
Circulatory systems compensate for _____.
A) the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large
Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the
fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the
gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body
circulation, an organism would need a(n)
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in
reptiles and mammals?
If a molecule of CO₂ released into the blood in your left toe is
exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following
Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in
the mammalian aorta?
To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric
molecules of oxygen must cross
Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are
You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes, you notice that it is still bleeding profusely. What may be the problem?
A) There are too many antigens to allow clotting.
A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
Engulfing-phagocytic cells of innate immunity include
A) I and III
Acidity in human urine is an example of
A boy falls while riding his bike. A scrape on his hand almost immediately begins to bleed and becomes red, warm, and swollen. What response is occurring?
A) autoimmune response
Inflammatory responses typically include
The cells and signaling molecules that initiate inflammatory
Mammals have Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that can recognize a kind of
macromolecule that is absent from vertebrates but present in/on
certain groups of pathogens, including viral
The cells involved in innate immunity, whose absence increases the
chances of developing malignant tumors, are
You and a friend were in line for a movie when you noticed the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both of you were equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the next few days, only your friend acquired flu-like symptoms and was ill for almost a week before recovering. Which one of the following is a logical explanation for this?
A) Your friend had antibodies to that virus.
what major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity?
A) It results in effector cells with specificity for a large number
Vaccination increases the number of
An immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, of whatever class, with regions
symbolized as C or V, H or L, has a light chain made up of
If a patient is missing B and T cells, what would be absent from the immune response?
Select the pathway that would lead to the activation of cytotoxic T
This type of immunity is present only when a newborn infant is being
fed by actively nursing on its mother and ends when nursing ends.
A patient complaining of watery, itchy eyes and sneezing after being
given a flower bouquet as a birthday gift should first be treated with
Which of the following would prevent allergic attacks?
Which of the following is the best definition of autoimmune
Which of the following is a type of local signaling in which a cell secretes a signal molecule that affects neighboring cells?
A) hormonal signaling
B) autocrine signaling
C) paracrine signaling
D) synaptic signaling
A cluster of tumor cells that produces and secretes growth factors to
induce surrounding cells to grow and divide are showing which type of
Which of the following types of signaling is represented in the
What is the only type of chemical signal that does not alter the physiology of the animal producing the signal?
What property of steroid hormones allows them to cross the phospholipid bilayer?
A) Steroid hormones act on cells close to where they were produced
and very few molecules are required to travel such a short distance to
cross the lipid bilayer.
Testerone functions inside a cell by
A) coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increase
The reason that the steroid hormone aldosterone affects only a small number of cell in the body is that _____.
A) It is unable to enter nontarget cells.
Tadpoles must undergo a major metamorphosis to become frogs. This change includes reabsorption of the tail, growth of limbs, calcification of the skeleton, increase in rhodopsin in the eye, development of lungs, change in hemoglobin structure, and reformation of the gut from the long gut of an herbivore to the short gut of a carnivore. Amazingly, all of these changes are induced by thyroxine. What is the most likely explanation for such a wide array of effects of thyroxine?
A) Different tissues have thyroxine receptors that activate
different signal transduction pathways.
If a biochemist discovers a new molecule, which of the following pieces of data would allow her to draw the conclusion that the molecule is a steroid hormone?
I) The molecule is lipid soluble.
A) II and IV
The steroid hormone that coordinates molting in arthropods is
Insect hormones and their receptors
During mammalian labor and delivery, the contraction of uterine
muscles is enhanced by oxytocin. This is an example of
When a person gets dehydrated while exercising on a hot day, their
pituitary gland releases ADH, a hormone that signals the kidneys to
retain more water. This is an example of
An example of antagonistic hormones controlling homeostasis is
Which endocrine disorder is correctly matched with the malfunctioning
Fight-or-flight reactions include activation of
If a person loses a large amount of water in a short period of time,
he or she may die from dehydration. ADH can help reduce water loss
through its interaction with its target cells in the
The force driving simple diffusion is _____, while the energy source for active transport is _____.
A) the concentration gradient; ADP
B) the concentration gradient; ATP
C) transmembrane pumps; electron transport
D) phosphorylated protein carriers; ATP
When a person drinks alcohol, the rate of urination increases. This suggests that ADH may be affected by alcohol consumption in some way. Which of the following best accounts for the increase in urination?
The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be ________ with its
The fluid with the highest osmolarity is
n animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism
The advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes as urea rather than as
ammonia is that
Which nitrogenous waste has the greatest number of nitrogen atoms?
Which of the following is synthesized by mammals, most amphibians,
sharks, and some bony fishes, and has lower toxicity than its
Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid
Which process in the nephron is least selective?
Choose a pair that correctly associates the mechanism for osmoregulation or nitrogen removal with the appropriate animal.
A) metanephridium - flatworm
Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the
The figure above shows a nephron. Filtration takes place in the structure labeled _____.
A primary reason that the kidneys have one of the highest metabolic
rates of all body organs is that
What is the function of the osmotic gradient found in the kidney? The osmotic gradient allows for ________.
A) the filtration of large cells at the glomerulus
The loop of Henle dips into the renal cortex. This is an important feature of osmoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates because _______.
A) the loop of Henle plays an important role in
Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules
The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by all of the
Osmoregulatory adjustment via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
system can be triggered by
which of the following aspects of eukaryotic reproduction are found only among invertebrates?
A) Sexual and asexual reproduction
In an animal that switches between sexual and asexual reproduction, when is sexual reproduction more likely to occur?
A) when males and females find each other
What makes sexually reproduced offspring genetically different from their parents?
A) genetic recombination during mitosis
B) crossing over during mitosis
C) genetic recombination during meiosis
D) sexual reproduction does not produce genetically different offspring
which of the following is most true of sexual reproduction?
A) Sexual reproduction is completed more rapidly than asexual
On a submarine expedition to the ocean bottom, you discover a
population of fish that are only female. What type of reproduction
does this fish likely use.
Mature human sperm and ova are similar in that
Human sperm cells first arise in the
In the above figure, which letter points to the prostate gland?
In the above figure, which letter points to the urethra?
A male's "primary" sex characteristics include
A physician finds that a nine-year-old male patient is entering puberty much earlier than is usual. Such a condition is most likely the result of a tumor in the _____.
A) anterior pituitary, producing elevated levels of
In the above figure, which letter points to the endometrium?
In the above figure, which letter points to the corpus luteum?
The primary difference between estrous and menstrual cycles is that
In correct chronological order, the three phases of the human ovarian