85 notecards = 22 pages (4 cards per page)
As a percentage of daily energy intake, what is the recommended range for the essential fatty acids?
5.6 to about 11
What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?
What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?
Free Amino Acids
What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
Lillie has been losing weight by following a very-low-carbohydrate diet for 2 months. Her primary care physician just diagnosed ketosis through a urine sample. Which of the following symptoms would be another way the physician might have suspected ketosis in Lillie?
What is the relationship between body proteins and water?
Protein attract water
In general, the protein quality in grains would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
How soon would death occur from starvation if the body was unable to shift to a state of ketosis?
What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?
The order of amino acids in peptide chains
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
Approximately how many ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?
In comparison to the well-defined structure of starch, which of the following is the most important factor that allows for the synthesis of thousands of different proteins?
The number of different Amino Acids
Ronnie eats a fairly balanced diet, but wants to include a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be your recommendation?
When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
omega 3s = Docosahexanoic (DHA)
Omega 6s = EPA
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Approximately how many weeks can the body remain alive after a person begins fasting?
For most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intake?
What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?
Lipoprotein for fat export
According to the DRI, what is the upper limit of fat (g) that may be consumed by a healthy person requiring 3000 kcalories per day?
The hydrolysis of ATP that often occurs simultaneously with the synthesis of many compounds is an example of
In the average healthy person, about how much time is required by the liver to process the alcohol in a typical drink?
If a person consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2700 kcalories per day, approximately what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?
Your roommate Bob has just come back from the doctor where he was subjected to a blood lipid profile analysis. The doctor provided him with dietary changes because the cholesterol results put him at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Which of the following results is consistent with the diagnosis?
High LDL ( Bad)
Low HDL (good)
When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more
Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as
A meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10 g of saturated fats, 14 g of monounsaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. What is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
What amino acid has been linked to the development of the rare blood disorder eosinophilia myalgia in people who took it as a supplement?
In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
ATP, water, Co2
The number of ATP molecules that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atoms of
Which of the following is a feature of homocysteine?
Increase risk for heart disease
In relation to the range of protein intake as a percentage of energy intake, what would be the highest safe level of protein intake for a 60- kg adult ingesting 2500 kcalories?
Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?
essential amino acid content
The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of
What is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?
Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
CIS to transfats
An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the
3rd carbon atom
Jim, a college baseball player, tells you that he has started to take glutamine supplements. How would you advise him?
What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?
What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
90 to 99%
Production of excessive amounts of acetyl CoA molecules leads to the synthesis of
Of the total amount of carbohydrate energy consumed by the body, approximately what percentage is used by the brain and nerve cells?
Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen?
( lost more than what was ingested)
What is the fate of excess dietary protein?
Degrade and store as fat
What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine?
The conditions known as acidosis and alkalosis refer to a disruption of the body s
A person with fruity odor on the breath demonstrates evidence of metabolic
Your college dormitory roommate, James, told you that he had anemia for quite some time and that it s from having abnormally-shaped hemoglobin. What type of anemia does James have?
Sicle cell anemia
Of the following sources of amino acids, which would be best absorbed in normal, healthy people?
Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of
Lactate to glucose
What is a "limiting" amino acid in a protein?
essential amino acid present and insufficient amount to make protein
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
Chylomicrons are synthesized within the
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume
Which of the following describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
High saturated fats
Approximately what percentage of children worldwide have protein-energy malnutrition?
Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
Jake is getting ready for spring training and is sitting down to a dinner of half a chicken, a rib-eye steak, black beans, and 5 slices of bacon. He has been eating typical dinners like this for about a month and has since gained 7 pounds, while exercising only briefly. When Jake asks why he doesn t see an increase in his biceps or abs, the proper response should be
Dietary protein alone does not contribute to muscle increase
What is the most likely reason for a person to have abnormally high blood ammonia levels?
liver not functioning properly
Which of the following can not be formed from pyruvate in human beings?
At what point is oxygen used in the electron transport chain?
At the end
A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
Approximately what percentage of the body s energy expenditure is furnished by amino acids?
Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as
The body s need for water increases on a diet high in
Jason is 35 years old and was recently diagnosed with 2 failing kidneys. He was advised to decrease the amount protein he consumes. If Jason cheats by eating an unce steak for dinner tonight, shortly thereafter there would most likely be an increase in the urea levels of his
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
Enhance the excretion of bile
What nutrient is used to form ketones?
Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
The study of how environmental factors influence the expression of genes without altering the DNA is known as
Your cousin Wanda was born with a genetic defect affecting her digestion, namely, a lack of intestinal villus tripeptidases and dipeptidases. Which of the following digestive processes would not take place?
can not break down peptides to amino acids
Approximately how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800-kcalorie meal that provides 50% of the energy from carbohydrate, 20% from protein, and the remainder from fat?
Which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
In the process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule?
Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the body s higher metabolic efficiency of converting a molecule of corn oil into stored fat compared with a molecule of sucrose?
fewer metabolic reactions
Why does the FDA advise against consumption of certain fish such as swordfish and shark by women of childbearing age?
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of