110 notecards = 28 pages (4 cards per page)
Metabolism: the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism.
Provides energy and building blocks for anabolism. (makes smaller molecules)
a Sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell
When atons, ions, and molecules collide.
Oxidoreductase: oxidation-reduction reactions
Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity
Enzyme Inhibitors: Feedback Inhibiton
Cut and Splices RNA
Oxidation: removal of elections
The Generation of ATP
ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP
Substrate -Level Phosphorylation
Energy from the transfer of a high-energy PO4-, tp ADP generates ATP
Energy released, generat ATP in the electon transport chain.
Carbohydrate Catabolism (learned in Bio 156)
The Breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy
A summary of Respiration
Aerobic Respiration- electron acceptor
Electron Acceptor Products
Pathway Eukaryote Prokaryote
The Electron Transport Chain
electrons are passed down the chain
spoilage of food
Use enegery from chemicals
Energy is used in the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix CO2
Use light energy
Figure 5.27 Requirements of ATP production
Figure 5.28 A nutrional classification of Orgnaisms
* ALL ORGANISMS HAVE TO HAVE ENERGY
Metabolic Diversity among Organisms
Biological oxidation are also called ___ reactions.
At the completion of the Krebs cycle, the carbons from glucose are in ___ (name the molecules)
Carbon dioxide (co2)
At the completion of aerobic respiration,energy has been formed. The energy from the oxidation of glucose is sotred in ____?
_______ involves an inhibitor that fills the active site of an enzyme and competes with the normal substrate for the active site.
For every NADH that is oxidized via the electron transport chain,___ ATP are formed.
All of the following pairs are correctly matched Except
Oxidation: reaction where are gained
Competitive inhibition of enzyme action evolves
Competition with the substrate for binding at the active site.
During glycolysis, elctrons from the oxidation of glucose are transferred to
Streptococcus (In italics) bacteria lack an electron transport chain. How many molecules of ATP can a Streptococcus (In italics) cell net from one molecule of glucose?
Unlike eukaryotes, in prokaryotes chemiosmosis
Occurs at the plasma membrane an not the mitochondria.
The chemical reactions involved in synthesizing proteins and cell wall peptidoglycan are examples of _____ reactions.
Fopre a cell wall, which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy per molecule?
Acetyl CoA pyruvate
The complete oxidation of glucose typically involves which three stages?
Glycolysis,Krebs cycle, and the elctron transport chain.
Which of the following mechanisms does not generate ATP using an electron transport train?
Which of the following are products of the light- dependent reactions, on which the light dependent reactions are dependent.
ATP and NADPH
Enzymes work most effectively at their optimal temperature and pH.
Feedback inhibition generally acts on the last enzyme in an anabolic pathway
Glycoysis produces ATP through substrate phosphorylation
The synthesis of sugars by using carbon atoms from Co2 gas is called carbon fixation.
Lipids, proteins, and sugars all may serve as substrates of glycolysis.
Which of the following is true of catabolism?
Catabolism reactions are exergonic; they break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones.
Which of the following statements is true about enzymes?
Each enzyme has a characteristic three- dimensional shape.
The chemical reactions involved in synthesizing proteins and cell wall peptidoglycan are examples of ____ reactions.
Which of the following statements is accurate concerning glucose metabolism?
Pyruvic acid, the product of glycolysis, is the starting block for both Krebs cycle and fermentation.
The complete oxidation (catabolism) of glucose typically involves three stages. The greatest amount of ATP is produced in which stage?
The elctron transport chain
Which of the following molecules carry electrons during various stages of glucose catabolism?
NADH & FADH2
Which of the following four stages of glucose oxidation requires molecular oxygen?
Which o fthe following statements accurately describes the difference between aerobic & anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration use oxygen as the final electron acceptor & anaerobic respiration uses either an inorganic molecule, such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions, or an organic molecule, such as an acid or alcohol.
Carbon fixation occurs during______.
Fermentation differs from anaerobic respiration in all of the following ways EXCEPT that fermentation does NOT ___.
use an electron transport chain.
When fermentation test are used to help identify bacteria, which of the following end-products is typically detected bya color or change?
Which of the following are products of light -dependaent ( in italics) photosynthetic reactions & are necessary for the light- independent (in italics) photosynthetic reactions occur?
During the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, organisms ____.
Nitrobacter (italics) bacteria use carbon dioxide for their source and Nitrate ions as an energy source. This organism is a ____.
Which group of organisms has members representing each of the following nutrional classification: chemoheterotrophs, chemoautogrophs, photoheterotrophs,&photoautotrophs?
Which of the following molecules traps energy released during oxidation reduction reactions?
Some amino acids are synthesized by adding an amine group to pyruvic acid or to one of the Krebs cycle intermediates. This process is known as ____.
You inocculate a bacterial culture into a tube containing glucose & peptides. The pH indicator shows that the pH decreased after 24 hours & then increased at 48 hours. Ehat has caused the increase in pH?
Which of the following terms refers to pathways that can function both in anabolism & catabolism?
Like glucose, amono acids are catabolized for energy, but these must be converted to a form where they can enter the Krebs cycle for oxidation. All of the following reactions occur in the catabolism or amino acids EXCEPT____.
Increase in number of cells, not cell size
The Requirements for Growth
Figure 6.1 Typical Growth rates of different types of microorganisms
Grow between 0 degrees Celcius and 20-30 degrees C
Most bacteria pH 6.5 and 7.5
Hypertonic environments, increase in salt or surgar, plasmolysis
-structural organic (has to have carbon in it) molecules, energy source
-In amino acids and proteins
In amino acids, Thiamine, and biotin
Organic Growth Factors
-Organic Compounds obtained from the environment
Advantages of Biofilms
Culture medium: growth
Anaerobic Culture Methods
Contain chemicals (thioglycolate or oxyrase) that combine O2.
Require high CO2 conditions
BSL-1: No special precautions
Distinguish colonies of different microbes
Suppress unwanted microbes, encourages desired microbes
Encourages growth of desired microbes
Obtaining Pure Cultures
Contains only one species or strain
Preserving Bacterial Culutres
Deep- Freezing -50C to -95C
Reproduction in Prokaryotes
Understanding the Bacterial Growth Curve
1.Lag Phase: Intense activity preparing for population growth but no increasein population
measuring Microbial Growth
Terminology of Microbial Control
Cont. Terminology of Microbial Control
Sterilization: removing all microbial life
Cont. Terminology of Microbial Control
Degerming: removing micobes from a limited area
Effectiveness of treatment
Actions of Microbial Control Agents
Alteration of membrane permeability
Thermal death point (TDP): lowest temperature, all cells in a culture are killed in 10 min
Decimal Reduction Time (DRT)
Minutes to kill 90% of a population
Moist Heat Sterilization
Dry Heat Sterilization
* Kills by oxidation
Hepa remmoves microbes
Physical Methods of Microbial Control
Low temperature : Inhibits growth
Ionizing radiation: x-rays, gamma rays, electrom beams
Principle of Effective Disinfection
Concentration of disinfectant
Metal rigs dipped in test bacteria are dried