90 notecards = 23 pages (4 cards per page)
The larvae of some insects are merely small versions of the adult,
whereas the larvae of other insects look completely different from
adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which
of the following most directly favors the evolution of the latter,
more radical, kind of metamorphosis?
Which tissue type, or organ, is NOT correctly matched with its germ
Among protostomes, which morphological trait has shown the most
The protostome developmental sequence arose just once in evolutionary
history, resulting in two main subgroups - Lophotrochozoa and
Ecdysozoa. What does this finding suggest?
The Hox genes came to regulate each of the following in what
sequence, from earliest to most recent?
The presence of a lophophore in a newly discovered species would
suggest that the species ________.
Arthropod exoskeletons and mollusk shells both ________.
Which of the following could be considered the most recent common
ancestor of living tetrapods?
Which characteristic is common to all the modern representatives of
all major reptilian lineages (turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, and
What is believed to be the most significant result of the evolution
of the amniotic egg?
(DIAGRAM) In the diagram below, point "A" is ________;
point "B" is ________.
The various taxonomic levels (for example, phyla, genera, classes) of
the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the
Some beetles and flies have antler-like structures on their heads,
much like male deer do. The existence of antlers in beetle, fly, and
deer species with strong male-male competition is an example of
(DIAGRAM) Refer to the figure above. Which of the following forms a
The duplication of homeotic (Hox) genes has been significant in the
evolution of animals because it ________.
What is true of the Cambrian explosion?
Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?
Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal
heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive
their nutrition by
The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a
As you are on the way to Tahiti for a vacation, your plane
crash-lands on a previously undiscovered island. You soon find that
the island is teeming with unfamiliar organisms; and you, as a student
of biology, decide to survey them (with the aid of the Insta-Lab
Portable Laboratory you brought along in your suitcase). You select
three organisms and observe them in detail, making the notations found
int he figure above. Which organism would you classify as an
The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between
In examining an unknown animal species during its embryonic
development, how can you be sure what you are looking at is a
What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of
animals originated, from earliest to most recent?
Some researchers claim that sponge genomes have homeotic genes, but
no Hox genes. If true, this finding would
Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic?
Why might researchers choose to use molecular data (such as ribosomal
RNA sequences) rather than morphological data to study the
evolutionary history of animals?
You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the
following characterisitics would enable you to argue that it is more
closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?
Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms?
Which of the following organisms would you expect to have the largest
surface-area-to-volume ratio? Assume that all of the following are the
same total length.
Nematodes and arthropods both ________.
While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large
numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the
laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the
mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has
a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n) ________.
All arthropods ________.
Which of the following combinations correctly matches a phylum to its
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some
point during their life cycle?
Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest
chordates in appearance?
Which of the following characteristics is shared by a hagfish and a
Vertebrates and tunicates share
The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are
associated with which function?
Suppose, while out camping in a forest, you found a chordate with a
long, slender, limbless body slithering across the ground near your
tent. This critter could be ________.
Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
It is believed that the coelacanths and lungfish represent a crucial
link between other fishes and tetrapods. What is the major feature in
these fish in support of this hypothesis?
Which of the following characteristics evolved independently in
mammals and birds?
Arrange these groups in order from most inclusive (most general) to
least inclusive (most specific).
Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in
relatively dry environments?
Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the
following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this
Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended
directly from dinosaurs?
Which of these are amniotes?
Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group,
all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
In what respect do hominins differ from all other
Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most
general) to least inclusive (most specific).
With which of the following statements would a biologist be most
inclined to agree?
(TABLE) The table above is a comparison of several characteristics of
H. floresiensis to those of nine other hominin species (arranged
roughly from oldest to most recent). What do these data
The evolution of similar insulating skin coverings such as fur, hair,
and feathers in mammals and birds is a result of ________.
As the size of some animals has evolved to greater sizes, the
effectiveness of their adaptations that promote exchanges with the
environment have also increased. For example, in many larger
organisms, evolution has favored lungs and a digestive tract with
Much of the coordination of vertebrate body functions via chemical
signals is accomplished by the ________.
If you were to view a sample of animal tissue under a light
microscope and notice an extensive extracellular matrix surrounding a
tissue, which tissue type would you most suspect?
Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals directly exchange
matter between cells and the environment include
Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with
Interstitial fluid is
If you gently bend your ear, and then let go, the shape of your ear
will return because the cartilage of your ear contains
Environmental influences appear to contribute to cellular mutations
that lead to tumor growth. For example, certain diets lead to higher
incidence of colon cancers, and overexposure to sunlight leads to
higher incidence of skin cancers. The tissues in closest contact with
a carcinogen or mutagen (anything that causes genetic mutations) are
obviously the ones most likely to develop tumors. Carcinomas and
melanomas account for well over half of all cancers. What type of
tissue would you guess the term carcinoma and melanoma is most closely
An elephant and a mouse are running in full sunlight, and both
overheat by the same amount above their normal body temperatures. When
they move into the shade and rest, which animal will cool down
The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal
internal environment is termed
Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that
In a cool environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an
extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized
endotherm because the ectotherm
Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians
The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above show that the
The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in
Certain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets
of some animals because
Ingested dietary substances must cross cell membranes to be used by
the body, a process known as
In the digestive system, peristalsis is
You discover a new species of bacteria that grows in aquatic
environments with high salt levels. While studying these bacteria, you
note that their internal environment is similar to the salt
concentrations in their surroundings. You also discover that the
internal salt concentrations of the bacteria change as the salt
concentration in their environment changes. The new species can
tolerate small changes in this way, but dies from large changes
because it has no mechanism for altering its own internal salt levels.
What type of homeostatic mechanism is this species using to regulate
its internal salt levels?
The function of mechanical digestion is to break down large chunks of
food into smaller pieces. Why is this important? Smaller pieces of
A zoologist analyzes the jawbones of an extinct mammal and concludes
that it was an herbivore. The zoologist most likely came to this
conclusion based upon ________.
In a well-fed human eating a Western diet, the richest source of
stored chemical energy in the body is
Because the foods eaten by animals are often composed largely of
macromolecules, this requires the animals to have mechanisms for
Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. Bacteria
that produce vitamins as products are residents of location
Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. The
highest rate of nutrient absorption occurs at location(s)
Circulatory systems compensate for
Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the
fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the
gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body
circulation, an organism would need a(n)
Atria contract ________.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds
If a molecule of CO₂ released into the blood in your left toe is
exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following
The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because
A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
For a healthy 20-year-old at rest, arterial blood pressure is
typically ____ mm Hg at systole and ____ mm Hg at diastole.
Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize