60 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
lung change in internal volume of the bell jar (thoracic cage)
diaphragm pushed up: decreased
lung change in internal pressure
diaphragm pushed up: increased
lung change in the size of the balloons (lungs)
diaphragm pushed up: decreased
lung change in direction of air flow
diaphragm pushed up: increased into lungs
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs?
increase in thoracic volume
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? Explain why
decrease in thoracic volume, increase in pressure. Gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the "container"
activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins inspiratory process. What effect does contraction of these muscle have on thoracic volume and how is this accomplished?
increase in thoracic volume. The diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior/inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior and posterior dimensions
What was the approximate increase in diameter of chest circumference during a quiet inspiration?
what temporary physiological advantage is created by the substantial increase in chest circumference during forced inspiration?
Increases the thoracic volume more; therefore, creates a greateer negative internal pressure, causing the gases to rush in quickly. Also, more "fresh" air reaches the alveoli.
The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal breathing movements. What would happen if an opning were made into the chest cavity as with a pressure wound?
Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.
which of the respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration?
Which is heard primarily during inspiration?
Where did you best hear the vesticular respiratory sounds?
Heard over most of the lung area
Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration
residual volume (~1100ml)
volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration
expiratory reserve (~1200ml)
Volume of air that is breathed in and out during normal respiration
tidal volume (~500ml)
Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration
inspiratory reserve (~2700-2800ml)
volume of air corresponding to TV+IRV+ERV
vital capacity (~4800ml)
would your vital capacity measurement differ if you preformed the test while standing? While lying down? Explain
Yes, both, when lying down or sitting the abdominal organs press against the diaphragm, making it harder for the diaphragm to move inferiorly
Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema (often associated). Chronic bronchitis lowers the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production; emphysema decreases the amount of air that can be exhaled (check valve effect)
% comp of air inspired
% comp of air expired
where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?
respiratory rate and depths of respiratory peaks observed: talking
respiratory rate becomes irregular when talking
resp. rate and depths of resp. peaks observed: Yawning
Yawning is reflected by very deep prolonged inspiration
resp. rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Laughing
Respiratory rate becomes irregular. Respiratory depth may increase or decrease depending on the nature of the laugh
Resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: standing
regular rythm and rate
resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Concentrating
resp rate is regular unless punctuated by intervals of apnea in individuals who hold their breath when concentrating
resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Swallowing water
respiration ceases during the period of swallowing
resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: coughing
resp rate becomes irregular and marked by increased depth of expirations during coughing
resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: Lying down
regular rhythm and regular or slighly depressed rate. Depth decreases
resp rate and depths of resp peaks observed: running in place
increased rate and depth of breathing
After breathing quietly and taking a deep breath which you held, was your urge to inspire or expire
reflex when exhaling and then holding breath
Explain results of breathing relexes
Hering-Breuer reflex. Both extreme deflation and inflation of the lungs excites receptors there. Impulses are transmitted to the medulla oblongata, which then initiates inspiration or expiration.
Why does hyperventilation produce apnea or a reduced respiratory rate?
Hyperventilation washes CO2 out of the blood. Since CO2 is the major chemical stimulus for inspiration, the desire or drive to breathe is decreased
Why does rebreathing air produce an increased respiratory rate?
CO2 (exhaled) accumulateds in the bag; this stimulates increased force/rate of respiration
What was the effect of running in place (exercise) on the duration of breath holding? Explain
decreases the duration because of the bodys need to get rid of CO2 and obtain 02 is increased by exercise
effect of respiration on circulation, explain data
Forced expiration increases intrathoracic pressure, reducing blood flow back to the heart, resulting in dilation of the neck and facial veins. Decreased cardiac output results in increased cardiac rate (seen here as increased pulse)
Increase in blood CO2..increase or decrease with respiratory rate and depth
Decrease in blood O2...increase/ decrease with resp rate and depth
Increase in blood pH...increase/decrease with resp rate and depth
Decrease in blood pH...increase/decrease with resp rate and depth
Did it appear that CO2 or O2 had a more marked effect on modifying the resp rate?
where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in BP located?
Aortic arch and carotid sinus
where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in O2 levels in the blood located?
Aortic bodies in the aortic arch and carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery
What is the primary factor that initiates breathing in a newborn infant
increase levels of CO2 in the blood
blood Co2 levels and blood ph are related. When blood CO2 levels increase, does ph increase or decrease?
Decrease because CO2 combines with H20 to produce carbonicc acid (H2CO3) which dissociates and liberates a H ion
Which if any of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely b exagerrated in a person who is cardiovascularly it such as a runner or swimmer
which if any of the measurable resp volumes would likely be exaggerated in a person who has smoked a lot for 20 yrs
a molecule or molecular system that acts to resist changes in pH
How successful was the lab buffer (pH7) in resisting changes in pH when acid was added?
when base was added?
How successful was the buffer in resisting changes in pH when additional aliquots 3 more drops of the acid and base were added to the original samples?
Successful; only slight pH changes are seen
What buffer system operates in blood plasma
Carbonic acid bicarbonate system
which member of the buffer system resists a DROP in ph?
which member of the buffer system resists a RISE in pH?
Expllain how the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system of the blood operates?
H2CO3 a weak acid remains undissociated at physiologic pH or acid pH. However, if the pH starts to rise, H2CO3 dissociates and liberates H, which acts to lower the pH. HCO3(bicarbonate ion) is the alkaline reserve; it acts to tie up excess H into the H2CO3 when the enviornment gets too acidic. Since it is a weak base, it doesnt unction under physiologic or alkaline conditions
what happened when the CO2 in exhaled air mixed with water
Phenol red turned yellow as CO2 mixed with water to form carbonic acid
what role does exhalation of CO2 play in maintaing relatively constant blood pH
CO2 leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents an accumulation of Carbonic acid (H2CO3)