76 notecards = 19 pages (4 cards per page)
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and associated structures
larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
conduits for air to REACH the sites of gas exchange
where gas exchange OCCURS
What is the functional unit of the respiratory system?
Nose is divided into 2 sections:
1. external nose: including the root, bridge, dorsum nasi, and apex
What is the name of the shallow vertical groove inferior to the apex?
Functions of the nasal mucosa and conchae:
1. during inhalation: they filter (coarse hairs), heat, and moisten air
sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity
funnel-shapes tube of skeletal muscle that connects to the:
Space behind the nose is called?
Nasopharynx (strictly an air passageway)
What is the area called that links the oral and nasal cavities?
Oropharynx (food and air passage)
What is the structure that extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge?
Laryngopharynx (food and air passage)
How far does the pharynx extend?
from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
What is the voice box called?
What are the functions of the larynx?
1. provides a patent airway
Where does the larynx attach to?
attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx superiorly
What is the laryngeal cartilage that gives you the "Adam's apple"?
What is the laryngeal cartilage that closes the larynx during swallowing?
What is the laryngeal cartilage that is used for the emergency air-opening procedure (tracheotomy?
Laryngeal cartilages picture
Thyroid (2 fused), epiglottis, cricoid, arytenoid (paired), corniculate (paired), cuneiform (paired)
1. ventricular/false vocal cords(cuneiform)
Ventricular folds (false vocal cords)
has the ability to close during coughing, sneezing, and Valsalva's maneuver
What is Valsalva's maneuver?
causes intra-abdominal pressure to rise when abdominal muscles contract,
What is the space that allows the vocal cords to open and close called?
What happens during whispering?
everything is closed except the posterior rima glottidis, the vocal folds do not vibrate (no pitch)
What is the flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the mediastinum?
Conducting zone: bronchi
What is the trachea called before it splits into the primary bronchi?
"ca-ry-na?" lol i forgot (look this up later)
What do the alveolar walls secrete?
Alveolar walls secrete angiotensin convering enzyme (ACE)
How do alveolar walls permit gas exchange?
by simple diffusion
What are alveolar walls made up of?
type I epithelial cells
How many alveoli are in the respiratory zone?
approximately 300 million
Type 1 = ACE
Picture: an alveolar exposed to cigarette smoke
right side has 3 lobes, left side has 2 lobes
What are the two main circulations that supply blood to the lungs?
pulmonary and bronchial
What is the name of the thin, double-layered serosa that covers the external lung surface?
What is another name for breathing?
Respiratory pressure is always described relative to:
atmospheric pressure (Patm)
Pressure within the alveoli is called:
intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul)
Pressure within the pleural cavity:
intrapleural pressure (Pip)
Pressure that keeps the airways open:
transpulmonary pressure (Ppul minus Pip)
When pressure is negative, you breathe in, when it is positive - you breathe out
Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until intrapleural pressure = atmospheric pressure
What is the major nonelastic source of resistance to airflow?
As airway resistance rises, breathing movements become more strenuous
severely constricted or obstructed bronchioles: can prevent life-sustaining ventilation
What does epinephrine do to the respiratory structures?
it dilated bronchioles and reduces air resistance
Define: surface tension
this happens when there's a decrease in surfactin;
a detergent-like complex that reduces surface tension and helps keep the alveoli from collapsing
Define: lung compliance
how much it allows you to expand/relax, contributed by the amount of pressure it is subjected to
Lung compliance is determined by two main factors:
1. distensibility of the lung tissue
factors that diminish lung compliance:
1. scar tissue/fibrosis
Tidal volume (TV): air that movies into and out of the lungs with each breath
Inspiratory capacity (IC): total amount of air that can be inspirated after a tidal expiration
Anatomical dead space:
volume of the conducting respiratory passages (150ml)
Alveolar dead space:
alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse of obstruction
Total dead space:
sum of alveolar and anatomical dead spaces
Pulmonary Function Tests:
Total ventilation: total amount of gas flow into and out of the respiratory tract in one minute
What is the instrument that consists of a hollow bell inverted over water, used to evaluate respiratory function?
Obstructive pulmonary disease:
increased airway resistance (asthma)
reduction in total lung capacity from structural of funtional lung changes (1800s corsets)
What is the name for the amount of gas reaching the alveoli?
What is the amount of blood flow reaching the alveoli?
The partial pressures and diffusion gradients are reversed..
Hemoglobin-oxygen is called:
Hemoglobin that has released oxygen is called:
reduced hemoglobin (HHb)
the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solubility
hemoglobin has greater affinity for carbon monoxide than for oxygen, prevents oxygen from binding to hemoglobin
Transport and exchange of carbon dioxide
(IN LUNGS, THESE PROCESSES ARE REVERSED)
(DRG)dorsal respiratory group, or inspiratory center:
appears to be pacesetting respiratory center, becomes dormant during expiration
(VRG) ventral respiratory group:
involved in FORCED inspiration and expiration
Medullary Respiratory groups
Inflation reflex (Hering-Breuer)
stretch receptors in the lungs are stimulated by lung inflation
COPD is exemplified by:
chronic bronchitis (barrel chested, crackly) and obstructive emphysema (short, rapid breaths and cute pink cheeks)
COPD patients have a history of:
smoking (or 2nd hand smoke), dyspnea, coughing, and frequent pulmonary infections
*DRAWINGS FROM CLASS*