104 notecards = 26 pages (4 cards per page)
Heart Rhythm and Breathing
Neck Movement- Head Rotation
Label 1 (plexus).
Label 2 (plexus).
Label 3 (nerve).
Label 4 (nerve)
1) Z disc
2) H zone
3) Z disc
4) thin (actin) filament
5) thick (myosin) filament
6) I band
7) A band
8) I band
9) M line
10) Z disc
11) M line
12) Z disc
thin filaments only
thick filaments only
thick filaments linked by accessory proteins
thick and thin filaments overlap
Lateral rectus muscle
Medial rectus muscle
Inferior oblique muscle
Inferior oblique muscle
List Cervical Nerves.
List Cervical Plexus Nerves.
List Brachial Plexus Nerves.
List Thoracic Nerves.
List Lumbar Nerves.
List Lumbar Plexus Nerves.
List Sacral Nerves.
List Sacral Plexus Nerves.
List Coccygeal Nerves.
Corpuscle: touch, light pressure
meissners (tactile) corpuscle
Area of skin: feel pain, temperature
free nerve ending
Corpuscle: deep continuous pressure
Corpuscle: deep pressure
sensory receptors that are sensitive to stimuli in external environment
sensory receptors that respond to stimuli arising within the body
sensory receptors that respond to internal stimuli but are restricted to skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles.
awareness of the stimulus
interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus
Sensory receptors act as ________________, changing environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are relayed to the CNS
Cells of the retina include the ___________ of the outer pigmented layer and the __________ of the neural layer.
The inner neural layer is composed of three major populations of neurons:
the photoreceptors, the bipolar cells, and the ganglion cells
The ______ are the specialized photoreceptors for dim light. Visual interpretation of their activity is in ____ tones.
The _______ are color photoreceptors that permit high levels of visual acuity, but they function only under conditions of high light intensity.
The _______________ contains only cones, the ______________ contains mostly cones, and from the edge of the macula to the retina periphery, cone density declines gradually.
Light must pass through the ____________ layer and the ____________ layer to reach and excite the rods and cones.
Black pigmented body that appears to be a halo encircling the lens.
Biconvex structure that is opaque in preserved specimens.
Anterior continuation of the ciliary body penetrated by the pupil.
More convex anteriormost portion of the sclera; normally transparent but cloudy in preserved specimens.
Appears as a delicate tan membrane that separates easily from the choroid.
Appears iridescent in the cow or sheep eye owing to a modification called the tapetum lucidum. This specialized surface reflects the light within the eye and is found in the eyes of animals that live under conditions of dim light. It is not found in humans.
pigmented choroid coat
At the ________________, the fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side.
Four qualities of cutaneous sensations have traditionally been recognized:
tactile (touch), heat, cold, and pain
the rate of receptor discharge slows and conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some type of stimulus change occurs
sensory experience in which pain is perceived as arising in one area of the body when in fact another, often quite remote area, is receiving the painful stimulus
referred pain (brain freeze)
Secretes lacrimal fluid, which contains mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme.
Allows lacrimal fluid to drain into the nasolacrimal duct.
Helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball and provides an attachment point for the extrinsic eye muscles.
Forms a clear window that is the major light bending (refracting) medium of the eye.
The blood vessels nourish the other layers of the eye, and the melanin helps to absorb excess light.
Contains the ciliary muscle and the ciliary process.
Alters the shape of the lens with contraction and relaxation.
Capillaries of the ciliary process form the aqueous humor by filtering plasma.
Attaches the lens to the ciliary process.
Controls the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil diameter. The sphincter pupillae contract to constrict the pupil. The dilator pupillae contract to dilate the pupil.
Allows light to enter the eye.
Absorbs light and prevents it from scattering in the eye. Pigment cells act as phagocytes for cleaning up cell debris and also store vitamin A needed for photoreceptor renewal.
Pigmented layer of the retina
Photoreceptors respond to light and convert the light energy into action potentials that travel to the primary visual cortex of the brain.
Neural layer of the retina
The lens divides the eye into two segments:
anterior and posterior segment
the anterior segment, anterior to the lens, which contains a clear watery fluid called the ______________________
the posterior segment behind the lens, filled with a gel-like substance, the _________________________
the anterior segment is further divided into two chambers: ____________________, located before and after the iris
anterior and posterior chambers
The aqueous humor is continually formed by the capillaries of the _________________ of the ciliary body.
This helps to maintain the intraocular pressure of the eye and provides nutrients for the avascular lens and cornea.
The aqueous humor is drained into the ____________________.
scleral venous sinus
The vitreous humor provides the major internal reinforcement of the posterior part of the eyeball, and helps to keep the _______ pressed firmly against the wall of the eyeball
In addition to the cornea, the light-bending media of the eye includes 3 other parts:
the lens, the aqueous humor, and the vitreous humor.
Anything that interferes with drainage of the aqueous fluid increases intraocular pressure. When intraocular pressure reaches dangerously high levels, the retina and optic nerve are compressed, resulting in pain and possible blindness, a condition called ______________.
Each ______________ contains fibers from the lateral side of the eye on the same side and from the medial side of the opposite eye.
The image formed on the retina as a result of the refractory activity of the lens is a ____________ (reversed from left to right, inverted, and smaller than the object).
The elasticity of the lens decreases dramatically with age, resulting in difficulty in focusing for near or close vision, especially when reading. Called
, or sharpness of vision, is generally tested with a Snellen eye chart.
_________________ are designed to test for deficiencies in the cones or color photoreceptor cells.
Ishihara’s color plates
Color Blindness: There are three cone types, each containing a different light-absorbing pigment:
red, blue, green
Humans, cats, predatory birds, and most primates are endowed with __________.
The primary visual cortex fuses the slightly different images, providing _______________.
The ____________, controlled by the autonomic nervous system, are those of the ciliary body.
The _____________ are the rectus and oblique muscles, which are attached to the eyeball exterior.
The ear is divided into three major areas:
external, internal and middle
The external and middle ear structures serve the needs of the sense of ________.