19 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
For each of the following statements, indicate whether it applies more to the endocrine system or the endocrine system: rapid; discrete responses; controls growth and development; long-lasting responses.
The endocrine system is more closely associated with growth and development, and its respones tend to long-lasting,
Which two endocrine glands are found in the neck?
The thyroid and parathyroid glands are found in the neck.
What is the difference between a hormone and a paracrine?
Hormones are released into the blood and transported throughout the body,
Name the two major chemical classes of hormones. Which class consists entirely of lipid-soluble hormones?
The two major chemical classes of hormones are amino acid-based hormones and steroids.
Consider the signaling mechanisms of water-soluble and lipid-soluble hormones.
Water-soluble hormones act on receptors in the plasma membrane coupled most often via regulatory molecules called G proteins to intracellular second messengers.
What are the three types of stimuli that control hormone release?
Hormone release can be triggered by:
What is the key difference between the way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior pituitary
The hypothalamus communicates with the anterior pituitary via hormones released into a special portal system of blood vessels.
Anita drank too much alcohol one night and suffereed from a headache and nausea the next morning.
Drinking alcoholic beverages inhibits ADH secretion from the posterior pituitary
List the four anterior pituitary hormones that are tropic hormones and name their target glands.
LH and FSH are tropic hormones that act on the gonads,
What is the major effect of thyroid hormones? Parathyroid hormone? Calcitonin?
Thyroid hormone increases basal metabolic rate (and heat production) in the body.
Name the cells that release the thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormones, and calcitonin?
Thyroid follicular cells release thyroid hormone,
List the three classes of hormones released from the adrenal cortex and for each briefly its major effect(s).
Glucocotrticoids are stress hormones that, among many effects, increase blood glucose.
Synthetic melatonin supplements are available, although their safety and efficacy have not been proved. What do you think they might be used for?
melatonin is used by some individuals as sleep aid, particulary to counter jet lag.
You've just attended a football game with your friend, Sharon, who is diabetic.
When we say Sharon is diabetic, this means that she has indufficient insulin action in her body.
Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are both due to lack of a hormone.
Diabetes mellitus is due to a lack of insulin production or action, whereas diabestes insipidus is due to a lack of insulin production or action,
Which of the two chemical classes of hormones introduced at the beginning of this chapter do the gondadal hormones belong to?
The gonadal hormones are steroid hormones.
Which hormone does the heart produce and what is its function?
The heart produces atrial natriuretc peptide (ANP).
What is the function of the hormone produced by the skin?
Vitamin D3, produced in inactive form by the skin, increases intestinal absorption of calcium.
In the elderly, the decline in levels of which hormone is associated with muscle atrophy? With osteoporosis in women?
The decline in growth hormone with age contributes to muscle atrophy.