59 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
What is the primary function of stems?
Maximization of photosynthesis by leaves
When you eat Brussels sprouts, you are eating _____.
large axillary buds
Some of the largest leaves in the world can be found on plants near
the forest floor of dense
Leaf thickness represents a trade-off between _____.
water retention and carbon dioxide absorption
One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy
of leaves is that
a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots
Which of the following was a challenge to the survival of the first land plants?
repel or trap insects
Which structure is correctly paired with its tissue system?
tracheid — vascular tissue
The main source of water necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the
leaf mesophyll is
soil via the xylem
The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the _____.
Which of the following cell types retains the ability to undergo cell division?
a parenchyma cell near the root tip
Which of these is NOT an example of a parenchyma cell?
support cells near the outside of nonwoody stems
Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that
support young, growing
Which of the following is correctly paired with its structure and function?
sclerenchyma — supporting cells with thick secondary walls
Which of the following occurs in vascular land plants but not charophytes (stoneworts)?
Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?
tracheids and vessel elements
Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
Plant meristematic cells _____.
are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells
Which of the following arise, directly or indirectly, from meristematic activity?
secondary xylem, leaves, dermal tissue, and tubers
Compared to most animals, the growth of most plant structure is best described as _____.
What is present in a shoot apical meristem region?
I, II, and III
Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to _____.
cell elongation localized in each internode
Apical meristems of dicots are at the tips of stems. Apical meristems
of grasses are at ground
If you mow two inches above ground level, both the apical and
intercalary meristems can
In a meristematic region, the cell plate during mitosis is
perpendicular to the side of the stem.
vertically in height
Which of the following cells or tissues arise from lateral meristem activity?
Cells produced by lateral meristems are known as _____.
Which of the following can be used to determine a twig’s age?
Number of apical bud scar rings
A plant that grows one year, dies back, and then grows again the
following year, produces
Which of the following is the correct sequence of the zones in the
primary growth of a root,
zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation
The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is primarily _____.
elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem
Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the
increased delivery of water to the aboveground stem
Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is
3 meters tall. The nail is
You find a plant unfamiliar to you and observe that it has vascular
It is probably a monocot.
Monocot vascular bundles do not have a vascular cambium between the
xylem and phloem.
do not produce wood in annual rings
Refer to the figure above. A monocot stem is represented by _____.
Refer to the figure above. A woody eudicot is represented by _____.
Refer to the figure above. A plant that is at least three years old is represented by _____.
Canada thistle is a dicot that spreads via growth from lateral roots.
You want to use a root
a vascular bundle in the center surrounded by parenchyma tissue
A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many
loosely packed cells
The veins of leaves are _____.
I, II, and III
The main function associated with structure X is _____.
retention of water
The main function associated with structure Y is _____.
absorption of carbon dioxide
Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area of a leaf when
putting more red blood cells into circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels decline
Where is primary growth occurring in an old tree?
in young branches where leaves are forming
What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?
A plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system, several
growth rings evident in a
If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a
large redwood tree, when
the annual rings, new xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and bark
Heartwood and sapwood consist of _____.
Two examples of lateral meristems in plants are _____.
vascular cambium, producing secondary xylem; cork cambium, producing cork
Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root
originates from which
Girdling is a procedure to kill unwanted tress by cutting a groove
into the bark of the tree.
No sugars can be transported from the leaves to the roots.
Where are the youngest wood and the youngest bark in a tree trunk?
Youngest wood is toward the outside, near the vascular cambium;
youngest bark is the inner
The polarity of a plant is established when _____.
the shoot-root axis is established in the embryo
Growth and development of plant parts involves _____.
I, II, and III
Totipotency is a term used to describe a cell's ability to
give rise to a complete new
cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression
Which of the following statements is true?
Homeotic genes often control morphogenesis.
The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to the
mature vegetative phase is
a change in the morphology of the leaves produced