18 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
Which level of structural organization is considered to be the highest level?
*the organismal level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive
* The Hierarchical Organization of The Body: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
Histology would be best defined as a study of ___.
The nucleolus is...
... the site of ribosome assembly in a cell.
Which cell organelle provides the majority of the ATP needed by the cell to carry out its metabolic reactions?
Which cell component helps to maintain the structural integrity of the cell?
The functions of centrioles include...
... organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division.
Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
a) Simple squamous epithelia: associated with filtration and exchange
b) Simple cuboidal epithelia: found in areas that stretch
c) Simple columnar epithelia: associated with absorption and secretion
d) Stratified squamous epithelia: found in areas subjected to wear and tear
Transitional epithelium is found...
... in areas subjected to stretching [like the uterus and bladder].
Which of the following describes a holocrine gland? Holocrine glands...
a) ... secrete their products by endocytosis.
b) ... secrete their products by pinching off the apex of the cell.
c) ... secrete their products by rupturing.
d) ... secrete their products by exocytosis.
* merocrine secretion uses vacuoles, apocrine secretion pinches off a concentrated portion of the cell, and holocrine secretion involves the rupture of the cell
___ is a water-soluble, complex glycoprotein that is secreted by all unicellular exocrine glands.
In connective tissue, the role of collagen fibers is to:
a) provide tensile strength
b) retain fluid
c) provide elasticity
d) form delicate networks around blood vessels
Which type of gland produces hormones?
*endocrine glands excrete their products into the blood rather than into ducts [such as exocrine glands do to secrete substances onto epithelial surfaces] as a faster delivery system
___ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
*simple, stratified; squamous, cuboidal, columnar
SPECIAL CASES: transitional [squamous to cuboidal], pseudostratified columnar [appears to be stratified yet each connects with the basement membrane - only in epithelial tissue]
Connective tissue has a regenerative capacity, while most epithelial do not.
* regenerate extremely well [epithelial tissue, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, blood-forming tissue], moderate capacity for regeneration [smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue], weak capacity for regeneration [skeletal muscle, cartilage, cardiac muscle, nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord]
Which of the following is correctly matched?
a) cartilage: fibroblast
b) bone: fibroblast
c) bone: osteoblast
d) connective tissue proper: chondrocyte
* connective tissue proper [fibro-], cartilage [chondro-], bone [osteo-], blood [hemocyto- OR include RBCs and WBS and platelets]
*"blasts" actively divide and synthesize during growth and repair, "cytes" provide a level of maintenance within the organism
Which of the following is not a role of connective tissue?
*connective tissue provides a source of transportation [blood], insulation [adipose tissue], protection [bone (rib cage), blood (immune system)], and binding or support [bone, connective tissue proper]
The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock is because they possess ___.
*elastic fibers, reticular fibers, hydroxyapatite crystals, collagen fibers