47 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Glucose serves as the initial reactant.
1) Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.
1) Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
True or False: The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.
True or false:
Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals
True or False The termessential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health:
True or False:
There areno complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.
True or false:
The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by the age, size, and metabolic rate of the person
True or False:
The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.
True or False: Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.
True or False:
All athletes require diets high in protein and calories in order to perform and to maintain their muscle mass
True or False: When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation
True or false: It would not be healthy to eliminateall fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.
True or false:
For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose
True or false: Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
True or false: Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations
True or false:
Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available
fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?
A) decrease appetite and food intake
B) shrink fat stores
C) protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
D) promote weight loss with activity
Which of the following statements best describescomplete protein?
A) derived only from legumes and other plant material
B) must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
C) derived from meat and fish only
D) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
The termbasal metabolic rate reflects the ________.
A) energy needed to make all organic molecules
B) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
C) loss of organic molecules in urine
D) loss of energy to perspiration
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
A) very few foods contain vitamins
B) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
C) vitamins provide protection against the common cold
D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular
respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
B) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
C) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
D) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
A) carbohydrate utilization increases
B) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
C) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
D) ketone bodies are formed
The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
A) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
B) break down food molecules and generate ATP
C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
D) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
A) fat utilization B) lipolysis C) lipogenesis D) gluconeogenesis
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
A) oxidation reactions
B) oxidative phosphorylation
C) lactic acid production
D) substrate-level phosphorylation
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
A) absorptive state
B) period when the metabolic rate is lowest
C) postabsorptive state
D) starvation period
Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?
A) increase in ADH production
B) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
C) release of epinephrine
D) sympathetic sweat gland activation
What is the outcome of ketosis?
A) water retention and edema
B) metabolic alkalosis
D) metabolic acidosis
E) glycogen buildup
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet,
proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.
B) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
C) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
D) production of some hormones
The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis?
Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
A) control of blood volume
B) control of blood pressure
C) noninflammatory responses
D) skeletal muscle contraction
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive
state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other
organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important
hormonal factor in determining BMR.
Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
A) an individual's body weight
B) the way an individual metabolizes fat
C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
D) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen
Which of the choices below isnot a major route of heat exchange?
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
A) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate.
B) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.
C) The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.
D) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy.
Which of the following doesnot occur in the mitochondria?
A) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
B) Krebs cycle
D) electron transport
Which of the following isnot true of beta oxidation?
A) It involves the anabolism of fats.
B) It occurs in the mitochondrion.
C) Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments.
D) Every second carbon is reduced.
Select the correct statement about proteins.
A) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.
B) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.
C) Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.
D) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its
activity, produces motion, or does work?
C) cellular respiration
D) beta oxidation
Which of the following is correct?
A) Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.
B) Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
C) Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle.
D) Each FADH2 yields about 1 1/2 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
A) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
B) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals
C) corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ
D) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of
amino acids include ________.
B) ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
C) adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation
D) excessive amounts of protein in the diet
Which of the following isnot a function of LDLs?
A) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis
B) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
C) assist in the storage of cholesterol when supply exceeds demand
D) regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells
Which of the following best definesnegative nitrogen balance?
A) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.
B) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.
C) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.
D) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.