390 notecards = 98 pages (4 cards per page)
Groups of cells (and the substance surrounding them) that usually arise from common ancestor cells and work together to perform a particular function comprise a _______________.
Renal physiology is the study of the function of the _______________.
The chemical reactions that break down large, complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones are referred to as _______________.
_______________ is the ability of an organism to detect and react to changes in the external or internal environment.
_______________ is a condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits.
Any disturbance in homeostasis is referred to as _______________.
The chemicals produced by the endocrine system that help regulate homeostasis are called _______________.
In a feedback loop, the control center provides output to and elicits a response from a(n) _______________.
The stimulus (stress) in a feedback loop is an increase in blood sugar. If this feedback loop is a negative feedback loop, then the effector will cause the blood sugar to _______________.
The stimulus (stress) in a feedback loop is an increase in blood sugar. If this is positive feedback loop, then the effector will cause blood sugar to _______________.
The anatomical term that means "on the same side of the body" is _______________.
The serous membrane associated with the heart is the _______________.
Description of any region of the body by means of directional terms and body planes assumes that the body is in _______________ position.
The anatomical term that means "away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure" is _______________.
The _______________ system is composed of a series of glands that secrete hormones.
A feedback system consists of three basic components: a control center, a receptor, and a(n) _______________.
Specialized structures within a cell that function in the overall cell's anatomy and physiology are known as _______________.
The study of structure and the relationships between structures is _______________.
The study of the function of body parts is _______________.
The basic structural and functional unit of an organism is the _______________.
_______________ are structures that are composed of two or more different tissues, have specific functions, and usually have recognizable shapes.
The level of structural organization of the body consisting of several related organs that have a common function is the _______________.
The microscopic study of the structure of cells is _______________.
The microscopic study of the structure of tissues is _______________.
A plane or section that divides an organ such that you would be looking at a medial surface of a section of that organ would be a _______________.
Homeostasis is regulated by the endocrine system and the _______________ system.
The component of a feedback loop that senses changes in the environment and notifies the control center of the changes is called the _______________.
The wrist is _______________ to the elbow.
The intestines are _______________ to the heart.
The muscles are _______________ to the skin.
The most plentiful extracellular cation is _______________.
Anything living or nonliving that occupies space and has mass is known as _______________.
Different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called _______________.
A substance that can be chemically broken down into two or more different elements is a _______________.
The covalent bond that forms between a pair of amino acids is called a _______________.
Substances that can speed up chemical reactions without being altered themselves are known as _______________.
adenine and guanine
The two purines found in DNA nucleotides are _______________.
The complete hydrolysis of proteins would yield _______________.
The term double helix describes the structure of _______________.
The major lipid component of cell membranes is _______________.
Cholesterol, bile salts, and sex hormones are all examples of a class of lipids known as _______________.
Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the pH of blood between 7.35 and _______________.
A molecule that gains hydrogen atoms during chemical reactions in the body is said to be _______________.
The collision energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur is called the _______________.
The two factors that most influence the chance that a collision will occur between atoms are the concentration and the _______________.
A positively charged ion is called a _______________.
The most abundant inorganic compound in the human body is _______________.
Organic compounds are held together mostly or entirely by _______________ bonds.
In a solution, the substance that is dissolved is the _______________.
In the formation of macromolecules, monomers are joined together by a reaction called a _______________, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the reactants.
Macromolecules are broken down into monomers by the addition of water in a reaction known as _______________.
Sugars and starches are examples of _______________.
The principal function of carbohydrates is to provide _______________.
Lipids are said to be hydrophobic, which means that they are _______________.
Triglycerides are made up of fatty acids and _______________.
Fats whose fatty acids contain multiple double bonds between their carbon atoms are said to be _______________.
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are examples of a class of lipids known as _______________.
Catalytic proteins are called _______________.
The biological function of a protein is determined by its _______________ structure.
The number of substrate molecules converted to product per enzyme molecule in one second is called the _______________.
If Solution A has more solutes and less water than Solution B, then Solution A is considered to be _______________ to Solution B.
A group of nucleotides on a DNA molecule whose purpose is to serve as the "directions" for manufacturing a specific protein is a _______________.
Distribution of two sets of chromosomes into two separate and equal nuclei is known as _______________.
Cytokinesis begins with formation of a _______________.
The union and fusion of gametes is called _______________.
In a diploid cell, the two chromosomes that belong to a pair are called _______________ chromosomes.
Chromosome number does not double with each generation of cell division because of a special nuclear division called _______________.
The process of formation of haploid sperm cells in the male testes is known as _______________.
The process of formation of haploid ova in the female ovaries is known as _______________.
The homologous pairing of chromosomes in prophase I of meiosis is known as _______________.
The haploid cells in the female that do not function as gametes are known as _______________.
cell plasma membrane
The fluid mosaic model describes the structure of the _______________.
Temporary structures in the cytoplasm that contain secretions and storage products of the cell are known as _______________.
The part of a phospholipid molecule that lines up facing the intracellular and extracellular fluids is the _______________.
As a result of the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, a voltage called the _______________ exists.
The property of a cell membrane that permits passage of certain substances and restricts passage of others is known as _______________.
If two solutions have different concentrations and they are separated by a membrane that is permeable to the solute, then there will be net movement of solute molecules until _______________ is reached.
The net movement of water across a selectively membrane by passive means is known as _______________.
There is no net movement of water molecules across a membrane separating solutions that are _______________ to each other.
Red blood cells with in intracellular concentration of 0.9% NaCl will undergo _______________ when they are placed in a solution of 5% NaCl.
A type of passive transport across a cell membrane that requires special transporters (carriers) is _______________.
Droplets of extracellular fluid flow into vesicles during the process of _______________.
Export of substance from the cell in which vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid is known as _______________.
Large organic compounds, such as proteins and glycogen, that remain suspended in the cytoplasm, rather than dissolved, are known as _______________.
The proteins around which DNA wraps in a chromatin fiber are called _______________.
Organelles that are membrane-enclosed vesicles filled with digestive enzymes are _______________.
Microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments comprise the _______________.
Regions within DNA strands that do not code for synthesis of part of a protein are called _______________.
Each set of three consecutive nucleotide bases on messenger RNA that specifies one amino acid is called a _______________.
Division of a parent cell's cytoplasm and organelles is called _______________.
The primary function of stratified squamous epithelium is _______________.
Simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and forms the walls of capillaries is known as _______________.
_______________ glands secrete their products into ducts.
A connective tissue that is avascular is _______________.
The secretions from endocrine glands are called _______________.
Mucous connective tissue is found primarily in the _______________.
The cells of mature cartilage are called _______________.
The most abundant type of cartilage in the human body is _______________.
_______________ growth of cartilage continues throughout life.
The connective tissue layer of a mucous membrane is called the _______________.
The type of membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior is a _______________.
The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal organs is called the _______________.
_______________ conduct nerve impulses away from the cell bodies of neurons.
The type of cell in areolar connective tissue that produces histamine and heparin is the _______________.
The type of tissue whose matrix normally contains large amounts of calcium salts is _______________.
The surface area of the apical surfaces of epithelial cell membranes is increased by the presence of _______________.
Goblet cells produce _______________.
The "gristle" covering the ends of bones at joints is _______________ cartilage.
Intervertrbral discs and the menisci of the knees are made of _______________.
Electrical or chemical signals can pass from cell to cell via connections known as _______________.
The type of epithelium in which the cells may or may not reach the surface, and whose nuclei may lie at different levels giving the appearance of multiple layers is _______________.
Keratin may be present in _______________ epithelium.
Glands in which secretory cells die as their product is discharged are _______________ glands.
The immature cells of each major type of connective tissue have names that end in the suffix _______________.
The fibers of the connective tissue matrix are embedded in the amorphous _______________.
The reticular connective tissue that forms the supporting framework for many soft organs is known as the _______________.
The basic unit of compact bone is the _______________.
skeletal muscle tissue
A type of tissue that is described as being striated and voluntary is _______________.
smooth muscle tissue
Propulsion of food through the gastrointestinal tract and contraction of the urinary bladder are functions of _______________.
Cells that are the structural and functional units of the nervous system are called _______________.
Individuals who do not get enough exposure to sunlight or who do not consume enough fortified milk may develop a deficiency of vitamin _______________.
The red-brown-black pigment in skin that absorbs UV light is _______________.
Most people who have albinism possess melanocytes, but lack the enzyme _______________.
The deeper region of the dermis is the _______________.
apocrine sweat glands
Sweat glands found primarily in the skin of the axillae, pubic region, and areolae of the nipples are the _______________.
The most prevalent life-threatening cancer in young women is _______________.
The single layer of continually reproducing cells in the epidermis is called the _______________.
The most superficial layer of cells in the epidermis is called the _______________.
The protein in the outer layer of the epidermis that provides protection against mechanical injury, bacterial invasion, and dehydration is _______________.
papillary region of the dermis
The region of the skin that is just deep to the stratum basale of the epidermis and that contains loops of capillaries is the _______________.
The reticular region of the dermis is attached to underlying organs by the _______________.
The subcutaneous layer contains pressure-sensitive nerve endings known as _______________.
Inability to synthesize the enzyme tyrosinase results in a condition known as _______________.
A yellowed appearance of skin and the whites of the eyes due to buildup of bilirubin resulting from liver disease is called _______________.
Redness of the skin due to increased blood flow in known as _______________.
Epidermal ridges conform to the contours of the underlying _______________.
Hair, nails, and skin glands develop from the embryonic _______________.
The adult pattern of hair grown is determined by _______________.
Mammary glands and ceruminous glands are modified _______________.
Blackheads develop from chemical oxidation of accumulated _______________.
The secretion from skin that plays a small role in the elimination of wastes is _______________.
The characteristic of epidermal cells that causes them to stop migrating during wound healing once they are touching other epidermal cells on all sides is called _______________.
The process of scar tissue formation is called _______________.
When body temperature begins to fall, to prevent further heat loss blood vessels in the skin will _______________.
sudoriferous glands; blood vessels
In the negative feedback loop in which the integumentary system helps regulate body temperature, the effectors are the _______________ and the _______________.
Cells in the epidermis that work with helper T cells to provide immunity are the _______________.
Formation of a blood clot, vasodilation of blood vessels, and increased permeability of blood vessels for delivery of phagocytes and mesenchyme cells is characteristic of the _______________ phase of deep wound healing.
Filling of a wound with granulation tissue is characteristic of the _______________ phase of deep would healing.
eccrine sweat gland
The more common type of sweat gland is the _______________.
stratified squamous epithelium
The type of tissue that forms the epidermis is _______________.
The study of bone structure and treatment of bone disorders is known as _______________.
The inner layer of the periosteum is called the _______________ layer.
The membrane that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone is called the _______________.
Mature bone cells that are completely surrounded by matrix are called _______________.
Bones are less brittle than other calcium-based products, such as oyster shells and egg shells, because they contain more of the protein _______________.
The channels in osteons that connect lacunae with central canals are called _______________.
Areas between osteons are filled in with _______________ lamellae.
In intramembranous ossification, the highly vascularized mesenchyme on the outside of the new bone develops into the _______________.
Yellow bone marrow consists primarily of _______________.
The part of a long bone that is not covered by periosteum is covered by _______________.
Cells whose primary function is bone resorption are the _______________.
About 50% of bone matrix consists of _______________.
The external layer of all bones and the bulk of the diaphyses of long bones is made up of _______________ bone.
Blood vessels run longitudinally through compact bone in _______________.
Thin plates of bone in spongy bone are called _______________.
The artery to the diaphysis of a long bone is called the _______________ artery.
The flat bonds of the skull form by _______________ ossification.
In endochondral ossification, the embryonic pattern for the bone is made of _______________.
Cells responsible for cartilage formation are called _______________.
During endochondral ossification of a long bone, the primary ossification center forms in the _______________.
A long bone increases in length due to the activity of cartilage cells at the _______________.
anterior pituitary gland
Human growth hormone is produced by the _______________.
Bone constantly remodels and redistributes matrix along lines of _______________.
insulin-like growth hormones
Hormones that are produced locally by bone and also by the liver that stimulate the uptake of amino acids and promote proteins synthesis are _______________.
Levels of calcium ions in the blood are increased by the effects of the hormone _______________.
The blood clot that forms in and around the site of a bone fracture is called a _______________.
A fracture in which the bone has splintered at the site of impact, leaving smaller fragments between the two main fragments is called a _______________ fracture.
gene for PTH within the parathyroid gland
In the negative feedback loop that controls the release of parathyroid hormone, the control center is the _______________.
A hormone that inhibits the activity of osteoclasts and promotes deposition of calcium ions into bones is _______________.
Inflammation of the bone marrow, caused by a pathogenic microorganism, is called _______________.
The optic foramina are found in the _______________ bone.
The superior portion of the sternum is called the _______________.
There are _______________ bones in the axial division of the skeleton system, and _______________ bones in the appendicular division
An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a _______________.
The suture located between the two parietal bones is the _______________ suture.
The suture located between the parietal bones and the occipital bone is the _______________ suture.
palatine plate; horizontal plate
The hard palate is formed by the _______________ of the maxillae and the _______________ of the palatine bones.
The tooth sockets are called _______________.
The first cervical vertebra is called the _______________.
Spinal nerves pass through openings between the vertebrae called _______________.
The atlas and head rotate around the _______________ of the _______________.
heads of the ribs
The facets and demifacets on the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae are sites of articulation with the _______________.
manubrium; body of sternum
The sternal angle is formed by the junction of the _______________ and the _______________.
Ribs that attach anteriorly to the cartilage of other ribs are reffered to as false ribs, or _______________ ribs.
An intervertebral disc consists of the outer fibrous and the inner elastic structure called the _______________.
When an infant begins to hold its head up, its vertebral column begins to develop a _______________ curve.
The structures involved in hearing and equilibrium are housed in the _______________ of the temporal bone.
The foramen magnum is a large hole in the _______________ bone.
The sella turcica of the sphenoid bone provides protection for the _______________ gland.
The olfactory foramina are located in the _______________ of the ethmoid bone.
The bony part of the bridge of the nose is formed by the _______________.
Alveolar processes are seen on two facial bones, the _______________ and the _______________.
Two foramina in the mandible that are important sites for injection of dental anesthetics are the mandibular foramen and the _______________ foramen.
A triangular bone that forms the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum is the _______________.
A bone located between the mandible and the larynx is the _______________ bone.
7; 12; 5; 5; 4
The adult vertebral column consists of _______________ cervical vertebrae, _______________ thoracic vertebrae, _______________ lumbar vertebrae, _______________ sacral vertebrae fused into one, and _______________ coccygeal vertebrae fused into one or two bones.
The anteriorly concave curves of the vertebral column are the _______________ and the _______________.
The two short, thick processes between the body and the laminae of a vertebra are the _______________
The largest vertebral foramina are found in the vertebrae of the _______________ region.
An increase in abdominal weight may cause an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature of the spine known as swayback, or _______________.
The functional classification of joints defined as slightly movable is the _______________.
A fibrous joint uniting the bones of the skull is a _______________.
The angle between articulating bones is decreased by a movement called _______________.
A bone moves away from the body's midline during _______________.
Any painful state of the body's supporting structures is known as _______________.
A degenerative joint disease that results from the combined effects of aging, irritation of joints, wear and abrasion, is _______________.
The forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint without dislocation is called a _______________.
A partial or incomplete dislocation is called a _______________.
The study of motion of the human body is called _______________.
When an epiphyseal plate closes it is transformed from a synchondrosis into a(n) _______________.
In a symphysis, the articulating bones are joined by _______________.
A syndesmosis would be classified structurally as a _______________ joint.
The function of the inner lining of the articular capsule is to produce _______________.
Fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another in a joint capsule is called a _______________.
Nutrients are supplied to the chondrocytes of the articular cartilage by _______________.
Fluid-filled sacs located between bones and overlying tissues that help alleviate pressure are called _______________.
Fibrocartilage pads that extend from the fibrous capsule into the joint cavity between articulating bones in large synovial joints are called _______________.
Someone who has a "torn cartilage" in the knee has damaged a(n) _______________.
The elbow is an example of a(n) _______________ joint.
The articulation of the clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula is an example of a(n) _______________ joint.
The combined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction is called _______________.
The movement of the thumb so that the tip of the thumb can meet the tip of any other digits on the same hand is referred to as _______________.
The joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb is an example of a _______________ joint.
The glenohumeral joint and the coxal joint are the only examples of the _______________ joint.
The periodontal membrane separates the articulating bones of a _______________.
A freely movable joint is called a _______________.
Bending the soles of the feet outward (laterally) so that the soles face away from each other is called _______________.
The narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the glenoid cavity is called the _______________.
The anterior surface of the knee is strengthened by the fused tendons of the quadriceps femoris muscle and the fascia lata, known as the _______________.
anterior cruciate ligament
The ligament stretched or torn in 70% of all serious knee injuries is the _______________.
smooth muscle tissue
Muscle tissue that is both non-striated and involuntary is _______________.
The ability of muscle tissue to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals (action potentials) is called _______________.
The ability of muscle tissue to return to its original shape after contracting or stretching is called _______________.
The dense irregular connective tissue that carries nerves and blood vessels, fills the spaces between muscles, and separates muscles into functional groups is the _______________.
A broad, flat tendon that connects muscle to bone, muscle, or skin is called a(n) _______________.
motor end plate
The region of a sarcolemma adjacent to the axon terminals at a neuromuscular junction is called the _______________.
Acetylcholine receptors are located on the _______________.
The region of the sarcomere that contains only thick myofilaments is the _______________.
The region of the sarcomere that contains only thin myofilaments is the _______________.
The thick myofilaments are anchored to the Z discs and stabilized during contraction and relaxation by _______________.
A triad consists of two terminal cisterns and a(n) _______________.
Myosin binding sites on actin are exposed when troponin changes shape as a result of binding _______________.
The shape change (swiveling) that occurs as myosin heads bind to actin produces the _______________ of contraction.
Muscle contraction without muscle shortening is called a(n) _______________ contraction.
The time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction, when calcium ions are being released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, is called the _______________ period.
The time following a stimulus during which a muscle cell is unable to respond to another stimulus is called the _______________ period.
A sustained contraction with no relaxation between stimuli is called _______________.
In a well-relaxed muscle, several identical stimuli administered in quick succession, but allowing complete relaxation between stimuli, will result in a phenomenon known as _______________.
Involuntary activation of a small number of motor units causes sustained, small contractions that give relaxed skeletal muscle a firmness known as _______________.
Muscles that exhibit hypotonia are said to be _______________.
Tension generated by tendons, elastic filaments, and connective tissues surrounding muscle fibers is called _______________ tension.
An isotonic contraction in which the muscle shortens to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint is called a(n) _______________ contraction.
An isotonic contraction in which the muscle lengthens to produce movement and to increase the angle at a joint is called a(n) _______________ contraction.
The wasting away of muscles due to progressive loss of myofibrils is called _______________.
In the phosphagen system, high-energy phosphate groups can be stored for future ATP production by combining with _______________.
pyruvic acid; two
During anaerobic glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of _______________, resulting in a net gain of _______________ molecules of ATP.
The reactions of cellular respiration occurring in the mitochondria are said to be aerobic because they require _______________.
aerobic cellular respiration
During long-term exercise, most ATP is produced as a result of _______________.
Each cardiac muscle fiber in a network is connected to its neighbors by an irregular transverse thickening of the sarcolemma known as a(n) _______________.
myosin light chain kinase
In smooth muscle, myosin binds to actin only after the myosin head has been phosphorylated via the action of the enzyme _______________.
The blood-testis barrier is formed just internal to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule by tight junctions between _______________ cells.
The cells in the seminiferous tubule that secrete testosterone are the _______________.
The process of cell division in which diploid cells are converted to haploid gametes is called _______________.
Division of each primary spermatocyte eventually produces _______________ spermatids.
Release of LH and FSH is regulated by the hormone _______________ produced by the hypothalamus.
A hormone secreted by sustentacular cells that targets the anterior pituitary to inhibit secretion of FSH is _______________.
A tightly coiled tube, 6m X 1mm, that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the _______________.
The testicular artery, veins, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle together constitute the _______________.
An accessory gland lying inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounding the urethra in the male is the _______________.
2.5-5 ml; 50-150 million
The average volume of semen in an ejaculation is _______________ with sperm count of _______________ per milliliter.
An antibiotic present in semen is _______________.
corpora cavernosa; corpora spongiosum
The paired dorsolateral masses of erectile tissue of the penis are called the _______________; the smaller midventral mass is called the _______________.
The vascular changes resulting in an erection are the result of a _______________ reflex.
Covering the glans of an uncircumcised penis is the foreskin, also known as the _______________.
The _______________ is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ductus deferens.
The white capsule of dense, irregular connective tissue that is immediately deep to the germinal epithelium of the ovary is called the _______________.
During early female fetal development, primordial germ cells migrate from the endoderm of the yolk sac to the ovaries, where they differentiate into _______________.
Degeneration of primary germ cells during female fetal development is called _______________.
Finger-like projections of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes are called _______________.
The inferior narrow portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina is called the _______________.
The layer of the endometrium nearest the uterine cavity that is shed during menstruation is the _______________.
A hysterectomy is surgical removal of the _______________.
The female structure that is homologous to the penis of the male is the _______________.
The form (stage) of the egg that is ovulated is the _______________.
During the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is prepared to receive a fertilized ovum principally by the hormone _______________ produced by the corpus luteum.
One of the most widely used spermicides in contraceptive creams, foams, sponges, etc., is _______________.
Onset of the first menses is called _______________; permanent cessation of menses as part of the aging process is called _______________.
The male pattern of differentiation of primitive gonads in the embryo depends on the presence of a master gene on the Y chromosome called _______________.
A chancre at the point of contact is the symptom of the primary stage of the sexually transmitted disease _______________.
Infection of the uterine tubes is called _______________.
_______________ is the term for the functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.
The glycoprotein layer internal to the corona radiata surrounding the oocyte is called the _______________.
The fertilized ovum is called a(n) _______________.
The development of an embryo or fetus outside the uterine cavity is called a(n) _______________.
The part of the female reproductive tract in which fertilization normally occurs is the _______________.
By the end of the third day after fertilization, the fertilized egg has become a solid ball of cells called the _______________.
The hollow ball of cells that is implanted into the uterine wall is called the _______________.
During the first two months of development, the developing human is called a(n) _______________.
ectoderm; endoderm; mesoderm
The primary germ layers are the _______________, the _______________, and the _______________.
The process by which the two-layered inner cell mass is converted into a structure composed of the primary germ layers is called _______________.
The fetal membrane that serves as an early site of blood formation and that is the source of the cells that differentiate into primitive germ cells is the _______________.
The structure derived from the trophoblast of the blastocyst that becomes the principal embryonic part of the placenta is the _______________.
Development of the placenta is accomplished by the _______________ month of pregnancy.
The portion of the endometrium that becomes modified following implantation is known as the _______________.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
The chorion of the placenta secretes the hormone _______________, which mimics the action of LH.
The time a developing human is carried in the female reproductive tract between fertilization and birth is called _______________, which is normally about _______________ weeks.
A condition that appears after the 20th week of gestation in which hypertension results from impaired renal function is called _______________.
The principal hormone promoting lactation is _______________.
The initial low-lactose, low-fat fluid produced by the mammary glands during late pregnancy and for the first few days following delivery is called _______________.
The complete genetic makeup of an organism is called the _______________.
alleles; homozygous; heterozygous
The two alternative forms of a gene that code for the same trait and are at the same locus on homologous chromosomes are called _______________; and individual in whom the two forms are the same is said to be _______________, while an individual in whom the two forms are different is said to be _______________.
The physical or outward expression of a gene is called the _______________.
An error in meiosis called _______________ occurs when homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly during anaphase of the reduction division.
A diploid human cell contains _______________ pair(s) of autosomes and _______________ pair(s) of sex chromosomes.
Traits inherited on the X and/or Y chromosomes are referred to as _______________ traits.
The dark-staining inactivated X chromosome seen in the nuclei of female mammalian cell is called a _______________.
Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 results in _______________.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
The hormone that serves as a basis for early pregnancy tests is _______________.
trophoblast; inner cell mass; blastocoel
The blastocyst has three portions - the outer _______________, the _______________, and the internal, fluid-filled cavity called the _______________.
inner cell mass
The embryo develops from the layer of the blastocyst called the _______________.
Projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption and digestion are called _______________.
acini; pancreatic islets
The exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called _______________; the endocrine cells of the pancreas are organized into clusters called _______________.
common hepatic duct; cystic duct
The common bile duct is formed by the union of the _______________ and the _______________.
Bile is produced by the _______________.
The function of the stellate reticuloendothelial cells of the liver is _______________.
The hormone that stimulates ejection of bile from the gallbladder is _______________.
Partially digested food passes from the _______________ region of the stomach into the _______________ region of the small intestine.
The process by which bile salts break triglycerides into one millimeter droplets is called _______________.
Trypsin and chymotrypsin are enzymes produced by the _______________.
The substrate for salivary amylase is _______________.
The substrate for trypsin is _______________.
sucrose; glucose; fructose
The substrate for sucrase is _______________, which is hydrolyzed into _______________ and _______________.
The last 20cm of the large intestine is called the _______________.
The prominent bands of smooth muscle running longitudinally along the large intestine are the _______________.
The contents of the colon are moved quickly from the transverse colon into the rectum by a movement called _______________.
The layer of areolar connective underlying the epithelium of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is called the _______________.
Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity is called _______________.
The largest of the peritoneal folds that drapes over the transverse colon and small intestine is the _______________.
The salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears between the skin and masseter muscle are the _______________.
Teeth are composed primarily of a calcified connective tissue called _______________.
The act of swallowing is also called _______________.
The condition in which stomach protrudes above the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus is known as a(n) _______________.
Chief cells of the stomach produce _______________.
G cells of the stomach secrete _______________.
Folds in the gastric mucosa are called _______________.
The pancreatic duct and the common bile duct unite to form the _______________.
Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin by the action of the enzyme _______________.
The right and left hepatic ducts are formed by the merging of smaller ducts called _______________.
The microscopic, finger-like projections of the apical membranes of absorptive cells in the small intestine are called _______________.
A yellowish coloration of the sclerae and mucous membranes due to the buildup of bilirubin is called _______________.
The feeding and satiety center are located in the _______________.
The term that refers to all the chemical reactions in the body is _______________.
Those chemical reactions that break down molecules and release energy are collectively known as _______________. Those that synthesize larger molecules from smaller ones are collectively known as _______________.
basal metabolic rate
The rate at which the resting, fasting body breaks down nutrients to liberate energy is called the _______________.
Transfer of heat between objects without physical contact is called _______________.
Transfer of heat between solid objects in contact with each other is called _______________.
A fever-production substance is called a _______________.
specific dynamic action
The effect of ingested food on metabolic rate is called _______________.
The lowering of body temperature below thirty-five degrees centigrade is called _______________.
Formation of ATP by transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate phosphorylated compound to ADP is called _______________ phosphorylation.
Formation of ATP via energy released during the reactions of the electron transport chain is called _______________ phosphorylation.
The oxidation of glucose by cells is also called _______________.
Glycolysis is the oxidation of glucose to _______________.
Loss of a molecule of carbon dioxide by a substance is called _______________.
oxaloacetic acid; citric acid
When acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, the acetyl unit combines with _______________ to form _______________.
During the Krebs cycle, two molecules of _______________ are generated by subrate-level phosphorylation.
The linking of ATP generation with the pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes is called _______________.
Iron-containing proteins involved in the reactions of the electron transport chain are called _______________.
carbon dioxide; water
The complete aerobic oxidation of glucose yields _______________ and _______________.
The theoretical maximum number of ATP molecules produced as a result of the aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule is _______________.
liver; skeletal muscle tissue
Glycogen is stored in the _______________ and the _______________.
The process by which new glucose is formed from non-carbohydrate sources is called _______________.
The process by which fatty acids are catabolized to two-carbon fragments is called _______________.
Acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are collectively known as _______________.
Lipogenesis is stimulated by the hormone _______________.
During the deamination of proteins, an amino group is removed and converted to _______________, which is then converted to _______________ by the liver.
During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose levels are normally maintained at _______________ per 100 ml.
The breakdown of proteins, particularly in skeletal muscle fibers, is stimulated primarily by the hormone _______________.
The most abundant cation in the body is _______________.
The vitamin that is essential for the formation of photopigments is _______________.