59 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Even in the absence of sperm, metabolic activity in an egg can be artificially activated by ________.
2) The formation of the fertilization envelope requires an increase in the cytosolic concentration of ________.
3) Contact of a sea urchin egg with signal molecules on sperm causes the egg to undergo a brief ________.
4) The plasma membrane of the sea urchin egg ________.
5) Fertilization of an egg without activation is most like ________.
6) A reproductive difference between sea urchins and humans is ________.
7) During fertilization, the acrosomal contents ________.
8) In a newly fertilized egg, the vitelline layer ________.
9) In sea urchins, the "fast block" and the longer lasting "slow block" to polyspermy, respectively, are ________.
10) In an egg cell treated with a chemical that binds calcium and magnesium ions, the ________.
11) In mammalian eggs, the receptors for sperm are found in the ________.
16) At the moment of sperm penetration, human eggs ________.
D) are still surrounded by follicular cells
17) Among these choices, the largest cell involved in frog reproduction is ________.
D) one of the products of the first cleavage
18) The pattern of embryonic development in which only the cells lacking yolk subsequently undergo cleavage is called ________.
19) As cleavage continues during frog development, the size of the blastomeres ________.
20) The vegetal pole of a frog zygote differs from the animal pole in that ________.
21) In which of the following organisms does holoblastic cleavage typically occur?
22) Which of the following correctly displays the sequence of developmental milestones?
23) The first cavity formed during frog development is the ________.
24) In some rare salamander species, all individuals are females. Reproduction relies on those females having access to sperm from males of another species. However, the resulting embryos receive no genetic contribution from the males. Why do you think sperm are necessary for reproduction?
25) The cortical reaction of sea urchin eggs functions directly in ________.
26) From earliest to latest, the overall sequence of early development proceeds in which of the following sequences?
27) An embryo with meroblastic cleavage, extraembryonic membranes, and a primitive streak must be that of ________.
28) Cells move to new positions as an embryo establishes its three germ tissue layers during ________.
29) The outer-to-inner sequence of tissue layers in a post-gastrulation vertebrate embryo is ________.
30) If gastrulation was blocked by an environmental toxin, then ________.
31) The archenteron of the developing sea urchin eventually develops into the ________.
32) In a frog embryo, gastrulation ________.
33) Which of the following is a correct description of the fate of the germ layers?
34) The primitive streak in a bird is the functional equivalent of ________.
35) In all vertebrate animals, development requires ________.
36) The least amount of yolk would be found in the egg of a ________.
37) At the time of implantation, the human embryo is called a ________.
38) Uterine implantation due to enzymatic digestion of the endometrium is initiated by the ________.
39) Thalidomide, now banned for use as a sedative during pregnancy, was used in the early 1960s by many women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Some of these women gave birth to children with limb and organ deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced ________.
40) The migratory neural crest cells ________.
41) Which of the following is a result of gastrulation in animals?
III) The germ layers are formed.
42) Cell migration occurs extensively during ________.
43) Changes in the shape of a cell usually involve a reorganization of the ________.
44) Select the choice that correctly matches the organ with its embryonic sources.
45) The embryonic precursor to the human spinal cord is the ________.
46) During metamorphosis, a tadpole's tail is reduced in size by the process of ________.
47) The term applied to a morphogenetic process whereby cells extend themselves, making the mass of the cells narrower and wider, is ________.
48) Which of the following is common to the development of birds and mammals?
49) During frog development, the blastocoel ________.
50) Which of the following correctly matches the extraembryonic membrane with its function?
51) Why was the evolution of the extraembryonic membranes crucial for colonization of land by the vertebrates? Extraembryonic membranes ________.
52) If an amphibian zygote is manipulated so that the first cleavage plane fails to divide the gray crescent, then ________.
53) Hans Spemann and colleagues developed the concept of the "organizer" in amphibian embryos while studying the ________.
54) Which of the following is an adult organism that has fewer than 1,000 cells?
55) The developmental precursors to the gonadal tissues of Caenorhabditis elegans uniquely contain ________.
56) One primary factor in shaping the polarity of the body axes in chick embryos is ________.
57) The arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in 3-D space defines ________.
58) If the apical ectodermal ridge is surgically removed from an embryo, it will lose ________.
59) The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ________.
60) In humans, identical twins are possible because ________.
61) Cells transplanted from the neural tube of a frog embryo to the ventral part of another embryo develop into nervous system tissues. This result indicates that the transplanted cells were ________.
62) Embryonic induction, the influence of one group of cells on another group of cells, plays a critical role in embryonic development. In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold transplanted a piece of tissue that influences the formation of the notochord and neural tube, from the dorsal lip of an amphibian embryo to the ventral side of another amphibian embryo. If embryonic induction occurred, which of the following observations justifies the claim of embryonic induction?
63) Just prior to the onset of gastrulation in an embryo, the "organizer" cells are specified. If you were to experimentally block the specification of these cells, what would you expect the result to be in the developing embryo?