12 notecards = 3 pages (4 cards per page)
Under which of the following conditions would you expect to find a cell with a predominance of free ribosomes?
A) a cell that is secreting proteins
B) a cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes
C) a cell that is constructing its cell wall or extracellular matrix
D) a cell that is digesting food particles
E) a cell that is enlarging its vacuole
Which is one of the main energy transformers of cells?
D) Golgi apparatus
Grana, thylakoids, and stroma are all components found in
Organelles other than the nucleus that contain DNA include
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
The mitochondrion, like the nucleus, has two or more membrane layers. How is the innermost of these layers different from that of the nucleus?
A) The inner mitochondrial membrane is highly folded.
B) The two membranes are biochemically very different.
C) The space between the two layers of the nuclear membrane is larger.
D) The inner membrane of the mitochondrion is separated out into thylakoids.
E) The inner mitochondrial membrane is devoid of nearly all proteins.
The peroxisome gets its name from its interaction with hydrogen peroxide. If a liver cell is detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, it does so by removal of hydrogen from the molecules. What, then, do the enzymes of the peroxisome do?
A) combine the hydrogen with ATP
B) use the hydrogen to break down hydrogen peroxide
C) transfer the harmful substances to the mitochondria
D) transfer the hydrogens to oxygen molecules
Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structures that contribute to the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. Which of the following are part of the cytoskeleton?
A) the nuclear envelope
Of the following, which cell structure would most likely be visible with a light microscope that has been manufactured to the maximum resolving power possible?
D) largest microfilament
E) nuclear pore
Which of the following possesses a microtubular structure similar to a basal body?
Microfilaments are well known for their role in which of the following? A) ameboid movement
B) formation of cleavage furrows
C) contracting of muscle cells
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This "tagging" of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track their location. In this case, we are tracking an enzyme secreted by pancreatic cells. What is its most likely pathway?
A) ER → Golgi → nucleus
B) Golgi → ER → lysosome
C) nucleus → ER → Golgi
D) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
E) ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
B) wall made of cellulose
C) central vacuole