173 notecards = 44 pages (4 cards per page)
the ductus deferens develops from the ____________ of the embryo.
The structure on a woman that is most comparable to the penis is the____________.
The ovaries secrete androgens, progesterone, estrogens, and inhibin but not a follicle stimulating_____________.
The first haploid stage in oogenesis is the ______________________.
The hormone that most directly influences the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle is _______________.
The ischemic phase of the uterus results from falling__________________.
The expulsion of semen occurs when the bulbospongiosus muscle is stimulated by_________________neurons.
Prior to ejaculation, sperm are stored primarily in the_______________.
The penis is attached to the pubic arch by crura of the ________________________.
The first hormone secreted at the onset of puberty is the _______________________hormone.
When it is necessary to reduce sperm production without reducing testosterone secretion, the sustentacular cells secrete____________.
Four spermatozoa arise from each ___________spermatogonium.
The point in meiosis at which sister chromatids seperate from each other is ________________.
Blood is forced out of the penile lacunae by contraction of the___________muscles.
Under the influence of androgens, the embryonic _____________duct develops into the male reproductive tract.
The ductus develops from the ___________duct of the embryo.
Before secreting milk, the mammary glands secrete___________.
Few women become pregnant while nursing because____________inhibits GnRH secretion.
During the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is prepared to receive a fertilized ovum principally by the hormone____________produced by the corpus luteum.
Smooth muscle cells of the myometrium and myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands are the target cells for______________.
True or false. Ovulation occurs in the luteal phase of the sex cycle.
Each egg cell develops in its own fluid-filled space called a_____________.
The layer of cells closest to a mature secondary oocyte is the _____________________.
A tertiary follicle differs from a primary follicle in having a cavity called the_______________.
All the products of fertilization, including the embryo or fetus, the placenta, and the embryonic membranes are collectively called_____________.
The funnel-like distal end of the uterine tube is called the______________and has feathery processes called_______________.
When a conceptus arrives in the uterus, it is at what stage of development?
The entry of a sperm nucleus into an egg must be preceded by the______________________.
The stage of the conceptus that implants in the uterine wall is a _______________.
Chorionic villi develop from the _____________________.
The syndrome that results from aneuploidy.
A transparent sac filled with fluid that protects embryo and forms from the maternal plasma filtrate and fetal urine.
One theory of senescence is that it results from a lifetime of damage by____________________.
Photoaging is a major factor in the senescence of the ____________________.
For the first 8 weeks of gestation, a conceptus is nourished mainly by_________________.
Aneuploidy is caused by_________________, the failures of two homologous chromosomes to seperate in meiosis.
______________is the term for the functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.
Fetal blood flows through_____________which project into the placental sinus.
Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 results in ______________and_____________.
down syndrome, trisomy 21
True or false. Polyspermy is a common occurence in fertilization.
The glycoprotein layer internal to the corona radiata surrounding the oocyte is called the___________________.
A multinucleate mass that grows roots and digests its way through the endometrium is a__________________.
True or false. Twins are from different eggs fertilized by the same sperm.
The attachment of conceptus to the endometrium will cause______________ to occur.
Prior to fertilization an oocyte is called____________and after fertilization it is called_____________.
secondary oocyte, zygote
The placenta takes over the endocrine functions after the corpus luteum stops producing____________and ______________.
The fetal membrane that serves as an early site of blood formation and is the source of the cells that differentiate into primitive germ cells is the __________.
Nerves are formed from the______________, and muscles are formed from the____________.
True or false. The atlantis is an embryonic membrane.
The ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale are circulatory shunts of_________________.
____________are viruses, chemicals or other agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus.
______________can occur through errors in DNA replication during the cell cycle or under the influence of environmental agents.
The blood testes barrier is formed by the tight junction in the ____________________.
Mitosis produces____genetically identical daughter cells.
Meiosis produces ____gametes, each with 1/2 the chromosome number of the original cell.
For every 1 spermatogonia there are ____spermatozoa.
What is lost from the uterus during the menstrual cycle?
In comparing the male and female sexual organs, the scrotum in the male is equivalent to the ________________________in females.
During development, the vaginal process becomes separated from the peritoneal cavity and persists as a sac called the___________________which enfolds the anterior and lateral sides of the testes.
Oxytocin directly stimulates contractions in the ________________.
Onset of the first menses is called_______________ and permanent cessation of menses as part of the aging process is called___________.
Development of breasts.
Growth of pubic and axillary hair.
First menstrual period.
True or false. Risk factors are not a significant importance in the case of breast cancer.
The number of eggs released on a monthly cycle.
The monthly female reproductive cycle comes to an end due to constriction of the ___________________due to progesterone decline.
The_____________is the thickest part of the tail on a sperm where mitochondria are found.
The________________is a lysosome in the form of a thin cap that covers the apical half of the nucleus of the sperm and contains enzymes that help the penetrate the egg.
The term for undescended testes.
One of the two branches of the internal pudendal artery that supplies blood to the skin, fascia, and corpus spongiosum of the penis.
One of the two branches of the internal pudendal artery that gives off smaller helicine arteries which penetrate the trabeculae and empty into the lacunae.
When the ____________artery dialates, the lacunae fill with blood and the penis becomes erect.
When the penis is flaccid, most of its blood supply comes from the __________arteries.
A median deep__________________drains blood from the penis and into a plexus of prostatic veins.
In the _________phase, variables such as respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure are sustained at a high level, or rise slightly, for a few seconds to a few minutes before orgasm.
Days 15 to 28, from just after ovulation to the onset of menstruation, are called the __________phase.
The last 2 days or so of the menstrual cycle are the ______________phase, a period of endometrial degeneration.
When enough menstrual fluid accumulates in the uterus, it begins to be discharged from the vagina for a period called the____________phase. (first 5 days)
In the _______________phase, the mature (graafian) follicle bulges through the surface of the ovary.
The______________phase is days 6-13 of the ovarian cycle where one follicle outgrows the others.
The tail is the___________that makes the sperm motile.
The duct of the epididymis straightens out at the tail, turns 180 degrees, and becomes the______________.
The _____________________is an extensive network of veins from the testis that surround the testicular artery in the spermatic cord.
Without the_________________, warm arterial blood would heat the testis and inhibit sperm production.
The seminiferous tubules lead into a network called the_______testis, where sperm partially mature.
A bundle of fibrous connective tissue containing the ductus deferens, blood and the lymphatic vessels, and testicular nerves.
The ______________ is a cordlike structure containing muscle that extends from the gonad to the abdominopelvic floor which shortens and guides the testes to the scrotum.
The_______________ducts eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions to the prostatic urethra.
In males, the mesonephric ducts develop into the reproductive tract and the _________________ducts degenerate. In females the opposite occurs.
____pair(s) of autosomes and____pair(s) of sex chromosomes = a total of ____ chromosomes.
22, 1, 46
The midpiece of the sperm is where ____________(ATP production) occurs.
_________ gland fluid lubricates the urethra and protects the sperm by neutralizing the acidity of residual urine in the urethra.
Most of the energy for sperm motility is derived from the metabolism of __________ carried in the seminal fluid.
The__________gland surrounds the urethra and ejaculatory ducts and produces the thin, milky secretion that constitutes 25-30% of semen.
The________________are two inch glands that lie posterior to the urinary bladder and secrete fluid that makes 60% of semen and dumps it into the ejaculatory ducts.
The______________is the site of sperm motility maturation over a 10-14 day period. It stores sperm and aids in ejaculation.
Haploid (n) cells that divide by Meiosis II to produce two spermatids--a total of 4 for each spermatogonium.
The resulting 4 haploid cells in Meiosis II are called____________.
______________________are in the seminiferous tubules of diploid cells and divide by Meiosis I to form secondary spermatocytes.
Primordial germ cells differentiate into________________.
Type ____spermatogonia remain in the body to replenish gametes throughout life due to their supply of stem cells.
Type____spermatogonia become primary spermatocytes.
Spermatogonia divide____________to form primary spermatocytes.
The formation of haploid sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. Takes 65-75 days in humans.
Changes that transform spermatids into spermatozoa. (discards excess cytoplasm and growing tails)
________________cells promote sperm cell development and regulate the rate of sperm production by secreting the hormone, inhibin.
The blood-testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between_______________cells, separating sperm from the immune system.
Between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of______________cells, the source of testosterone.
The female reproductive tract develops from the paramesonephric duct because of the absence of ______________and the mullerian-inhibiting factor.
The period from onset of gonadotropin secretion until the ability to reproduce sexually is attained.
The rise in_________and_________secretion after age 50 produces male andropause.
The outer fibrous tissue that lies underneath the skin and surrounds the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum.
The _______________muscle contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm.
In males it contributes to erection, ejaculation, and the feelings of orgasm. In females it contributes to clitoral erection and the feelings of orgasm, and closes the vagina.
_______________ is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
The ______________is anatomically homologous to the clitoral glans of the female.
The formation of gametes in the ovaries via meiosis. Stimulated by gonadotrophic hormones from the pituitary gland.
The_________________is the external serosa layer of the uterine wall of the female.
During the menstrual cycle, the _____________ grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer. This represents an optimal environment for the implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the uterus.
The ________________is a deeper layer of the uterine wall that regenerates a new stratum functionalis with each menstrual cycle.
The____________is composed of three layers of smooth muscle fibers which produce labor contractions to expel fetus during delivery.
The cessation of menstruation.
Women, like men, go through a midlife change in hormone secretion called the _____________. In women, it is accompanied with menopause.
Normally, only one follicle in each month's cohort becomes a_________________, destined to ovulate while the rest degenerate.
(mature) graffian follicle
Part of an egg undergoing folliculogenesis where the grown primordial follicles are surrounded by 7-8 layers of cells.
Part of folliculogenesis where the the follicular cells multiply and pile atop eachother to form multiple layers.
The theca folliculi layers to form an outer fibrous capsule, rich in blood vessels, called the ______________and an inner cellular, hormone-secreting layer, the________________.
theca externa, theca interna
The normal uterine discharge of blood, tissue, and mucus from the vagina after childbirth.
Agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus.
During fetal development, most venous blood bypasses the immature liver by way of a shunt called the ____________________, which leads to the inferior vena cava.
During fetal development, when the lungs are immature, blood bypasses the pulmonary circuit and some goes directly from the right atrium to the left through the _______________. (closes at time of birth)
Most of the blood that bypasses the pulmonary circuit is shunted directly into the aorta by way of a short passage called the __________________.
A rare genetic disorder due to a missing part of chromosome 5.
cri du chat
Down syndrome is caused by a nondisjunction of______________.
Triplo X syndrome, Klinefleltzer syndrome, and Turner syndrome are all due to a nondysjunction of_____________________.
Infertile female with mild intellectual impairment due to the egg receiving 2 X chromosomes fertilized by 1 X carrying sperm.
triplo x syndrome (XXX)
Sterile males with average intelligence (undeveloped testes) due to the egg receiving 2 X chomosomes fertilized by 1 Y carrying sperm.
klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
Sterile, webbed neck, female with no 2nd sexual features due to the egg receiving no X chromosomes but fertilized by X carrying sperm.
turner syndrome (XO)
An _____________ is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
_______________ is the presence of an extra chromosome or lack of one which accounts for about 50% of spontaneous abortions.
The ______________and the placenta secrete relaxin.
LH stimulates the ______________ to continue growing and to secrete rising levels of estraidol and progesterone.
The corpus ____________is a degenerated corpus luteum
The innermost layer of cells in the cumulus, surrounding the zona pellucida and oocyte.
The paternal and maternal chromosomes exchange segments of DNA in a process called________________.
The fusion of two gametes in fertilization.
The pairing of homologous chromosomes during early meiotic prophase in gametogenesis to form double or bivalent chromosomes.
Estrogen stimulates mitosis in the _______________and the prolific regrowth of blood vessels, thus regenerating the functionalis. (endometrium consists of only this layer around day 5 of menstruation)
The______________provides fetal nutrition and waste disposal, and secretes hormones that regulate pregnancy, mammary development, and fetal development.
The___________appears when conceptus arrives in the uterus and is characterized by a spherical stage consisting of 16 or more blasphomeres. (Age 3-4 days)
A single diploid cell formed by the union of egg and sperm. (Age 0-30 hrs)
The developing individual is a hollow ball called a blastocyst for much of the first 2 weeks, an embryo from day 16 through week 8, and a _________from the beginning of week 9 until birth.
The _______________secretes HCG that causes the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone and estrogen, preventing menstruation.
A blastocyst consists of inner cell mass (developing embryo) and outer cell mass(______________).
Any of the germinal disk cells of the inner cell mass in the blastocyst that form the embryo.
The attachment of conceptus to endometrium.
While migrating, sperm must undergo a process of_______________ that makes it possible to penetrate an egg.
The egg has a fast block and a slow block to prevent _____________ by more than one sperm (polyspermy).
The foundation of unbilical cord and urinary bladder.
The end result of oogenesis is _______haploid oocyte(s) and ______polar bodies.
Twins cannot come from different eggs fertilized by the_________sperm.
During the embryonic stage of development, all three primary_________layers are present.
_________secretion increases to about 30 times the usual amount by the end of gestation.
An acute rise of _______triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum, which then secretes increasing amounts of progesterone and estrogen.
Prevents involution of corpus luteum and stimulates its growth and secretory activity. It is the basis of pregnancy tests and is secreted by the placenta and blastocyst.
Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.
Rising levels of_________stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary to secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH).
Ectopic pregnancy usually occurs in the_____________.
The outermost membrane of the sac enclosing the fetus that secretes hCG in order to maintain progesterone secretion and sustain a pregnancy.
True or false. The preplacental stage is part of fetal development.
Immunological adaptation is possible due to ________ from the placenta and IgA's from milk.