55 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Innate immunity
2) All of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT
3) The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
4) Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
5) TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT
6) A differential cell count is used to determine each of the following EXCEPT
7) The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway after the point in the cascade where the activation of ________ takes place.
8) All of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT
9) A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?
10) Margination refers to
E) the movement of phagocytes through walls of blood vessels.
11) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
12) Which of the following is found normally in serum?
13) Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT
14) Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
15) Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT
16) Each of the following provides protection from phagocytic digestion EXCEPT
17) The antimicrobial effects of AMPs include all of the following EXCEPT
18) The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid
19) Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is FALSE?
20) Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with (getting to and getting hold of) microorganisms EXCEPT
21) All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT
22) All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT
23) A chill is a sign that
24) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
25) Which of the following is mismatched?
26) All of the following are part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons EXCEPT
27) The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by
28) The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
29) Activation of C3a results in
30) Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to
31) Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT
32) After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT
33) Activation of C5-C9 results in
34) All of the following are true regarding NK cells EXCEPT
35) Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?
36) Macrophages arise from which of the following?
37) All of the following pertain to fever EXCEPT that it
38) All of the following are iron-binding proteins found in humans EXCEPT
5. E) ferritin
39) All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
40) The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by
41) All of the following are components of the inflammatory process EXCEPT
42) Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the MOST severe?
43) Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is FALSE?
44) Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial
45) Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?
1) The dermis is composed of connective tissue and serves the primary purpose of providing direct protection from the external environment.
2) Microorganisms that are members of the normal microbiota are also known to cause disease.
3) Maturation of stem cells into mature blood cells occurs in the red bone marrow.
4) The inflammatory response can only be triggered by an infection.
5) Histamine and kinins cause increased blood flow and capillary permeability.
6) Aspirin alleviates pain, inflammation, and fever by inhibiting prostaglandins.
7) Complement proteins in their intact and unactivated form act as opsonins by binding to microorganisms and promoting phagocytosis.
8) Digestion of microorganisms occurs in phagosomes.
9) An example of a TLR would be peptidoglycan found in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.
10) Ingestion of certain lactic acid bacteria (LABs) has been shown to be beneficial for function and health of the intestinal tract.