99 notecards = 25 pages (4 cards per page)
What are the two parts that form the skull?
the neurocranium and the facial skeleton
What provides the case for the brain, CNs, blood vessels and meninges?
What is the cranium roof?
What is the cranium floor?
The cranial base
What is the cranial base made up of?
The ethmoid, occipital and temporal bones
How many bones is the neurocranium made up of?
What are the 8 bones of the neurocranium?
1 frontal, 2 temporal, 2, parietal, 1 occipital, 1 ethmoid and 1 sphenoid.
Where can you see the ethmoid and the sphenoid?
Inside of the skull.
How many bones is the facial skeleton made up of?
What are the bones of the facial skeleton?
2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 mandible and 1 vomer
The orbits for the eyes are the?
The biggest feature on the anterior aspect of skull's frontal bone.
Orbits are made up of how many bones?
What are the 6 bones of the orbits?
frontal, maxilla, zygomatic, lacrimal, sphenoid, ethmoid
What is the RIM?
frontal, maxilla and zygomatic bones of the orbits.
Which bones of the orbits are palpable?
The RIM. a.k.a frontal, maxilla and zygomatic bones of the orbits.
Which bones of the orbits are not palpable because they are inside of the skull?
lacrimal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
What is the function of sutures when we are infants and growing?
The sutures of the brain allow for brain growth and expansion.
What happens to sutures?
They eventually fuse.
Which suture connects frontal bone with the 2 parietal bones?
Which suture connects the 2 parietal bones?
Which suture connects the parietal to the occipital bone?
What is located on top of the parietal bone?
The parietal foramen.
What is bregma?
the point or area of the skull where the sagittal and coronal sutures joining the parietal and frontal bones come together.
What is lambda?
The occipital angle is rounded and corresponds with the point of meeting of the sagittal and the lambdoid suture—a point which is termed the lambda.
Which parts are the "squamous parts'?
the frontal and the occipital bones.
Which bone is inferior to the parietal bone?
What are the features of the temporal bone?
external auditory meatus, internal auditory meatus, mastoid process, styloid process and zygomatic process
What is the EAM?
external auditory meatus (ear canal)
What is the mastoid process?
Head band area behind ear.
What is the styloid process?
Point of the mastoid.
Directly posterior to the EAM is the?
Zygomatic bones are formed by two processes What are they?
zygomatic process of the temporal bone and temporal process of zygomatic bone (tongue twister ;p)
Inside the arch:
Greater wing of sphenoid bone and pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone (cant palpate or see it)
What is the nasal septum?
Bony wall between two nostrils.
Roof of mouth
What is the anterior hard palate formed by?
What is the posterior hard palate formed by?
Ethmoid bone parts
orbital plate, perpendicular plate, cribiform plate, crista galli
Clear liquid coming out of ears?
MEDICAL EMERGENCY. CSF fluid leaking out of ear because the cribiform plate got fractured. Call 911!
What do you find at the back of the skull?
External occipital protruberence and superior and inferior nuchal lines.
What do you feel when you slide down the external occipital protruberence?
Superior nuchal line attachments are?
Traps (origin), splenius, semispinalis capitis, longisimus capitis
Inferior nuchal line attachments are?
superior obliques, rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor
What is the strongest bone of the body?
The mandible (jaw)
The mandible is_____ and supported by ______.
thick, surrounding muscles
What are the two parts of the mandible?
ramus and body
What is the upright part of the mandible?
What is the horizontal part of the mandible?
What are the two parts of the ramus
coronoid process (anterior) and condylar process (posterior)
What are the two parts of the condylar process?
head and neck
What is anterior to the neck of the condylar process?
Where is the mandibular notch?
between the condylar process in the back and the coronoid process in the front
Angle of the mandible?
Easily palpable, where the ramus and the body come together
Anterior part of mandible
–Mental protuberance (chin)
–Mental tubercle (butt chin)
Not on the bone.
–Separates the body from the alveolar portion (crest) of the mandible (teeth)
The mandible will take part in the ______ joint.
TMJ. Temporomandibular joint.
Blood supply to the face will be mostly from ____ artery
The common carotid artery (CCA) splits at
the superior border of the thyroid cartilage
The common carotid artery (CCA) splits into
Internal carotid artery (ICA) & External carotid artery (ECA)
The ECA gives blood supply to the ____.
Face, (facial and temporal arteries) except the globella (area between eyebrows)
The blood flow of globella is supplied by?
The face is very ______ and when you have an injury it ______
vascularized, alot of bleeding, swelling and bruising.
The ICA will then head up to the ______ to help form the ______
brain, circle of Willis
Gives sensation to the entire the face & innervates the muscles of mastication
Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Muscles of facial expression are innervated by?
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Muscles of facial expression insert on?
skin NOT bones
What is mastication?
Sensory innervation of the face
Motor innervation of face
bring eyebrows together
closes the mouth
raises corners of mouth, real smile.
levator labii superioris
raises upper lip
levator anguli oris
raises corners of mouth
depressor anguli oris
depresses corner of mouth
compresses cheeks (like when squirting out water).
levator palpebrae superioris
elevates eyelid, not not considered muscle of facial expression
What is special/different about the levator palpebrae superioris?
It is not a muscle of facial expression thus not innervated by facial nerve
levator palpebrae superioris innervation
oculomotor nerve CNIII
Buccinator clinical pearl
compresses cheeks while eating, moves back food into the throat in a healthy person. This becomes an issue when one had a stroke or bell's palsy (facial paralysis) for example because the facial nerve might be compromised thus the muscles of facial expression such as the buccinator might not work right.Food might remain in the vestibular area between cheek and teeth. Person might choke once they lay down. Important to check in our patients with these diagnoses.
facial droop, half of the face is paralyzed. No known cause but facial nerve is compromised or irritated and symptoms are that the muscles of facial expression do not work properly. Buccinator might not push back food adequately, eye is open might dry out, liquid spills out of mouth.
Trigeminal nerve v1, v2, v3?
v1 is opthalamic nerve
v2 is maxillary nerve
v3 is madibular nerve
upper extremity affected if what part of the ICA is impacted?
lower extremity affected if what part of the iCA is impacted?
nose, forehead, and top of skull
lower nose, maxillae, cheeks, temporal bone area
chin, side of face
greater occipital nerve
dorsal rami C2 and 3 and occipial area
lesser occipital nerve
ventral ramus c2, behind ear
greater auricular nerve
ventral rami c2 and 3, behind ear and mastoid process area a little bit of neck (lateral area)
transverse cutaneous nerve of neck
anterior neck, ventral rami c2 and 3
posterior neck area innervated by
dorsal rami c3, 4 and 5