Which of the following was not an approach that Franklin
Roosevelt used during the early years of his administration to fight
- A) business-government cooperation and pump-priming federal
- B) subsidized crop reduction.
short-term emergency relief for the jobless, provided directly by
the federal government if necessary.
- D) nationalization of
the railroads and steel industry.
- E) public works projects
to provide jobs and stimulate the economy.
Which of the following was not one of Roosevelt's immediate
responses to the banking crisis?
- A) He proposed the Emergency Banking Act.
- B) He
declared a "bank holiday," which closed banks for four
- C) He nationalized the banks.
- D) He set up
procedures for managing failed banks.
- E) He assured
Americans over the radio that they could again entrust their money
Which New Deal initiative paid farmers subsidies to take
acreage out of production?
- A) Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
- B) Farm
- C) Farm Holiday movement
- E) Tennessee Valley Authority Act
Which of the following was not true of the National Industrial
- A) It embodied ideas of industrial self-regulation and
business-government cooperation and drew on the idea of trade
associations which had been promoted by Herbert Hoover.
It was declared unconstitutional.
- C) It appropriated $3.3
billion for heavy-duty government public-works programs to provide
jobs and stimulate the economy.
- D) Under it, major
industries drafted codes of "fair competition," setting
production limits, prescribing wages and working conditions, and
forbidding price cutting.
- E) It limited workers' collective
The Civilian Conservation Corps
- A) put five million young men and women to work in camps
across the country.
- B) was a conservative political youth
- C) employed jobless young men in rural projects such as
reforestation, park maintenance, and erosion control.
brought together business leaders to draft codes of fair
- E) was the precursor to the National Guard.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady?
- A) She wanted to serve as an observer for her husband and
promote social reform.
- B) She wanted to be a gracious
hostess for the many dignitaries who visited the White House.
- C) She wanted to personally draft legislation and forge foreign
- D) She wanted to promote an appreciation of the
- E) She wanted to support her husband and be a light
presence at social functions.
A growing anti-business attitude during the first Hundred Days
of the New Deal could be detected in which of the following programs?
- A) Reconstruction Finance Corporation
- B) Federal
- C) National Industrial Recovery Act
- D) Interstate Commerce Commission
- E) All of these
Which of the following agencies was created during the Hoover
administration to help failing financial institutions and continued
to be active through the New Deal years?
- A) Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Tennessee Valley Authority
- C) Federal Deposit Insurance
- D) National Recovery Administration
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
How did the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
influence the labor movement?
- A) It guaranteed collective-bargaining rights.
It permitted closed shops.
- C) It outlawed the practice of
blacklisting union leaders.
- D) It created the National
Labor Relations Board.
- E) All of these choices
Which piece of New Deal legislation established the principle
of federal responsibility for social welfare and created the basic
framework for the welfare system?
- A) Wagner Act
- B) Revenue Act of 1935
Social Security Act
- D) Hatch Act
- E) Federal
What was the purpose of the National Resources Planning Board?
- A) It facilitated the federal government's programs to
protect national forests.
- B) It facilitated state and
regional management of water, soil, timber, and minerals.
- C) It facilitated the storage of supplies in case there was a
- D) It facilitated local construction of vital
railways and roads.
- E) It facilitated the development of
federal, state, and local mining controls.
Which of the following is not a true statement about the Farm
- A) It was designed to benefit tenant farmers and
- B) It often declined loan applications from
the poorest farmers most in need of its help.
- C) It
provided medical services and shelter to migrant farm workers.
- D) It organized programs to teach poor farmers new, more
efficient agricultural techniques.
- E) It commissioned
photographers to record the lives of migrant workers, tenant farmers
and those escaping the Dust Bowl.
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at
campaign reform in the late 1930s?
- A) Pendleton Act
- B) McCain Act
- C) Hatch
- D) Kennedy Act
- E) Eggleston Act
Which of the following examples of New Deal legislation is
correctly paired with what its purpose?
- A) National Youth Administration: Launched a federal-state
program of workers' pensions, unemployment insurance, and other
- B) Fair Labor Standards Act: Banned child
labor and set a national minimum wage.
- C) Federal
Securities Exchange Act: Raised taxes on corporations and the
- D) National Housing Act: Halted sale of tribal lands
and enabled tribes to regain unallocated lands.
- E) Public
Utilities Holding Company Act: Guaranteed unions'
collective-bargaining rights and outlawed anti-union practices.
Which group faced appalling labor conditions in California's
- A) Native Americans
- B) African-Americans
- C) Asian-Americans
- D) Mexican-Americans
What happened to Roosevelt's "court-packing" plan?
- A) Congress, including New Deal supporters and many
conservatives, approved of it because they felt it was time for a
- B) The American people rejected it in a
- C) He had to drop it but was able to replace four
members of the Supreme Court who retired shortly thereafter.
- D) It turned out to be one of Roosevelt's greatest
- E) It was the issue that enabled the Republicans to
retake control of the Senate in the 1938 election.
What historic change took place during the 1936 presidential election?
- A) Roosevelt was elected president for a third term.
- B) African American voters switched party loyalty from
Republican to Democrat.
- C) Women voters became a key
constituency, turning out in record numbers to assure Roosevelt's
- D) Norman Thomas was the first Communist Party
member on the ballot.
- E) None of these choices
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938
established the basic framework of federal agricultural policy for
decades to come?
- A) The government provided subsidies to producers of major
farm commodities in return for cutting production.
- B) In
order to boost agricultural production the government made loans to
farmers to invest in more land, machinery, and labor.
- C) In
years of big harvests and low prices, the government would make
loans to farmers and store their surplus crops in government
- D) The government encouraged the survival of the
family farm by withholding aid to agribusiness.
- E) Farm
workers were now covered by collective bargaining and minimum wage
Which of the following statements is not true about the New Deal?
- A) The New Deal brought about full economic recovery, and by
1939 unemployment was no longer a serious problem.
- B) The
New Deal vastly increased the power and prestige of the
- C) The New Deal assumed a fundamental
governmental responsibility to promote economic prosperity and the
well-being of all citizens.
- D) As the New Deal evolved, it
acted as a broker for all organized interest groups-including
agriculture and labor, not just business.
- E) In the course
of the New Deal, a fundamental political realignment took
Benny Goodman was noteworthy because he
- A) created an integrated jazz orchestra that performed at
- B) developed be-bob and released the first
- C) won a Pulitzer Prize for A
Farewell to Arms.
- D) was the lead engineer for building
the Hoover Dam.
- E) served as Franklin Delano Roosevelt's
vice president for his first three terms.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about
unemployment during the New Deal?
- A) It never fell below 75 percent.
- B) As late as
1939 more than 17 percent of the labor force remained jobless.
- C) New Deal social and economic programs virtually eliminated
unemployment for the first time in American history.
- D) The
jobless rate crept steadily upward from 1932 until 1945.
It never exceeded 7.5% even though politicians exaggerated the
crisis for their own benefit.
Which statement best represents the economic status of farm
families during the 1930s?
- A) Because farm families were property owners, they suffered
less than other segments of society during the depression.
- B) Many farm families gave up because of debt and the
- C) In rural America, bankruptcies, foreclosures, and
the abandonment of farms were rare because communities stuck
- D) Three-fourths of the farms folded during the
- E) Because of the swift implementation of New
Deal reforms, farm families prospered from 1933 onward.
The Committee for Industrial Organization was established
- A) to organize skilled workers.
- B) by
industrialists to undermine the power of labor unions.
by President Roosevelt as one of his "alphabet agencies"
to address economic problems.
- D) to bring workers for
"Little Steel" into the collective-bargaining cycle.
- E) to organize all workers in a particular industry, regardless
of race, gender, or degree of skill.
How did U.S. Steel in 1937 respond to the newly formed Steel
Workers' Organizing Committee?
A) It lived up to its reputation as "the crouching lion in
the pathway of labor" and crushed the new union.
countered with the establishment of a company-sponsored employee
C) It recognized the union, granted a wage
increase, and agreed to a forty-hour week.
D) It engaged in a
protracted dispute with the union which included a major strike over
E) It closed down the union and drove the
socialists and agitators off the property.
Which statement best describes union membership in the 1930s?
- A) Unions lost members because unemployed workers would
accept low wages and poor working conditions to get a job.
- B) Unions gained membership, growing from only 3 million in 1933
to over 8 million in 1941.
- C) Union membership held steady
at approximately 5 million members throughout the 1930s.
Unions gained members because a big effort was made to organize
low-wage workers including agricultural laborers, and
- E) Union membership surged and
soon 75% of American workers were unionized.
Which of the following companies bitterly resisted
unionization in the 1930s?
- A) General Motors
- B) U.S. Steel
- C) Ford
- D) Pennsylvania Railroad
What vision of the future did the Futurama exhibit at the New
York World's Fair of 1939 feature?
- A) Space travel
- B) An automated home
- C) Air
travel to even the smallest towns
- D) A model city
crisscrossed by light-rail mass transit lines
- E) A complex
interstate highway network of the future.
What was the radio adaptation of War of the Worlds about?
- A) World War I
- B) Spanish Civil War
- C) Class
- D) An alien landing
- E) A war between
Christian Europe and the Islamic Middle East
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936?
- A) The Republicans candidate was an earnest but inept
- B) Roosevelt beat Alfred Landon in the most
crushing victory since 1820.
- C) Third-party candidates
siphoned off an alarming number of Democratic votes.
- D) The
Democrats increased their majorities in the Senate and the House of
- E) Roosevelt won the support of farmers,
union members, blacks, and women.
Which statement best expresses the mobility of
African-Americans during the 1930s?
- A) African-Americans poured into northern cities in a
"great migration" in search of employment.
African-Americans poured into southern cities in record numbers in
search of employment.
- C) The depression slowed down the
migration of African-Americans northward.
African-Americans reversed their previous migrations to northern
cities, and returned to southern farms where there were greater
opportunities for survival.
- E) The depression made little
difference because the majority of African-Americans had migrated to
northern cities earlier in the century.