60 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all
cell membranes by ________.
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves
out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is _________.
d. greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body
with O2 and dispose of CO2?
c. blood pH adjustment
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the
sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture"
c. Dalton's law
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air
is the ________.
c. vital capacity
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are
b. surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the
d. cartilage rings
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
d. Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory
d. partial pressure gradient
Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin
d. nitric oxide
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
a. alveolar surface tension
The larynx contains ________.
a. the thyroid cartilage
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing
a. As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is
a. inspiratory reserve
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n)
a. decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the
respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.
b. 28 weeks
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of
the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
B. Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
D. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the
medium bronchi to the aveoli?
D. Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by
D. Boyle's law
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include
B. voluntary cortical control
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because
of the ________.
A. ciliated mucous lining in the nose
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy
person is ________.
A. increase of carbon dioxide
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by
B. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
C. medulla and pons
Tidal volume is air ________.
D. exchanged during normal breathing
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory
rate of a newborn?
B. The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.
Which center is located in the pons?
D. pontine respirator group (PRG)
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be
A. 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
A. aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
C. rising blood pressure
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2
B. attached to the heme part of hemoglobin
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
B. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to
blow up a balloon?
C. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
A. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes
from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
B. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
C. as the initiator of the cough reflex
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
B. A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
C. as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen
binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
A. number of red blood cells
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the
lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
A. the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular
contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two
factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
D. the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation
that occurs as exercise is initiated?
C. decrease in lactic acid levels
Which of the choices below is not a functional process performed by
the respiratory system?
D. pulmonary ventilation
The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.
In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.
Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.
Dalton's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.
The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.
Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.
The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.
Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.
During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.
Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.
As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated (the Bohr effect).
The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.
Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.
Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.
The Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause overinflation of the lung.